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Effect of wood residues on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum

Authors: Cortina-Escribano, Marta & Veteli, Pyry & Linnakoski, Riikka & Miina, Jari & Vanhanen, Henri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 16-28.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2020.486
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Key words: bioconversion, Ganoderma lucidum, lignocellulosic biomass, mushroom cultivation, mycelial growth, mycelial morphology, wood residues

Abstract: Sawmill industries generate considerable amounts of low value wood residues. Fungal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass allows the conversion of wood residues into valuable products. The selection of the most suitable fungal strains and media are essential to optimise the bioconversion of wood residues and serves as a basis for mushroom cultivation industries. The aim of this study was to find the best combinations of Ganoderma lucidum strains and substrate media to optimise the cultivation of the fungus. Mycelial growth and culture characteristics of G. lucidum isolated from Betula pubescens and Picea abies in Finland were tested on agar media containing different wood residues. These included Betula sp., Populus tremula, Larix sp., Pinus sylvestris, Alnus incana and P. abies sawdust, which were added to malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and water agar. The results showed significant differences in the mycelial growth between all interaction levels (agar media, wood species and fungal strain). The addition of malt extract significantly enhanced the growth of the fungus in comparison to potato dextrose or water agar. The wood sawdust most suitable for mycelial growth was Betula sp., followed by P. tremula. Strains originally isolated from P. abies also presented higher mycelial growth in media with hardwood sawdust. These findings demonstrate that Betula sp. and P. tremula sawdust stimulate the growth of G. lucidum. Thus, it is possible to cultivate the fungus on a variety of wood residues from sawmill industries.

First Asian record of Comatricha anomala, a rare epiphytic corticolous myxomycete

Authors: Vlasenko, Anastasia & Vlasenko, Vyacheslav
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 10-15.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2020.485
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Key words: Stemonitidales, epiphytic myxomycetes, moist chamber culture, SEM, new records

Abstract: The Corticolous Myxomycetes comprise a group of slime-moulds that grow primarily on the bark of living trees. This work presents the first records of Comatricha anomala in Asia with data on its localities, habitat, and distribution. Comatricha species commonly inhabit bark folds of living trees, occasionally other substrates. Of the approximately 36 species in the genus, 13 have been recorded in Asia. Comatricha anomala was previously known only from Europe, North America and Cuba. Comatricha anomala were isolated using the moist-chamber method, which is a highly efficient means to identify hidden diversity of myxomycetes. Sporocarps of C. anomala were found in Petri dishes while examining a bark obtained from living Pinus sylvestris from the Novosibirsk Region. C. anomala differs from other species of Comatricha in its unique spore ornamentation. Scanning electron microscopy necessary to characterize the ornamentation of the surface of the spores in the Comatricha genus. The work includes a revised description of C. anomala with a scanning electron micrograph study of the spore ornamentation.

Hygrophorus betulae, a new species described from subalpine birch forest in Finland

Authors: Larsson, Ellen & Bendiksen, Katriina
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 1-9.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2020.484
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Key words: host preference, Hygrophoraceae, molecular systematics, taxonomy, woodwaxes

Abstract: A new species, Hygrophorus betulae, associated with Betula pubescens is described from the subalpine zone of northern Finland. The molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that it is closely related to H. mesotephrus, a species described from England and associated with Fagus. In morphology H. betulae is characterized by the small glutinous basidiomata and the pale pileus with an olive-grey disc zone. The colour of the disc zone is similar to that of H. olivaceoalbus. The species seems to be rare or may be overlooked because of the small and pale appearance.

Hymenochaete and Hymenochaetopsis (Basidiomycota) in Europe

Authors: Corfixen, Peer & Parmasto, Erast
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 49-80.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.483
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Key words: Hymenochaete, Hymenochaetopsis, mycogeography, host-variation

Abstract: Fourteen species of Hymenochaete and three species of Hymenochaetopsis from Europe are treated, including their distribution and host characteristics. Four new species are described, viz. Hymenochaete canescens, H. jaapii, H. pilatii and H. rhododendri. Two species are new for Europe, viz. Hymenochaete longispora and Hymenochaetopsis laricicola.

Aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) in forests of the middle part of Luga River valley, Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Authors: Volobuev, Sergey & Arzhenenko, Alexandra
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 37-47.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.482
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Key words: poroid fungi, corticioid fungi, biodiversity, threatened species, indicator species, Leningrad Oblast, Europe, Russia

Abstract: An annotated list of 119 aphyllophoroid macromycetes is presented. The material was collected in different forests of the planned conservation area of Yashchera-Lemovzha in Luga and Volosova Districts (Leningrad Oblast, Russia). The rare species Odonticium septocystidia is recorded for the second time from Leningrad Oblast, and the findings of Crustomyces subabruptus and Intextomyces contiguus are the third ones, the two earlier records were made more than a decade earlier. Occurences of indicator species of coniferous old-growth forests (Amylocystis lapponica, Crustoderma dryinum, Dichostereum granulosum, Fomitopsis rosea, Junghuhnia collabens, Phellinus ferrugineofuscus, Phlebia centrifuga, and Pycnoporellus fulgens) and deciduous forests (Dentipellis fragilis, Gloeoporus pannocinctus, Granulobasidium vellereum, Junghuhnia pseudozilingiana, Hydnocristella himantia, and Rigidoporus crocatus) confirm a high conservation value of the study area. Eight red-listed species for Leningrad Region were noted. All of them are new for the study area.

Bryoscyphus hyalotectus (Helotiales), a new polytrichicolous ascomycete from North America

Authors: Huhtinen, Seppo & Döbbeler, Peter
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 33-36.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.481
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Key words: Bryophilous fungi, Canada, muscicolous, Polytrichum juniperinum

Abstract: Bryoscyphus hyalotectus (Helotiales, Ascomycota) is presented as a new species based on a single collection from Canada. It infects the moss Polytrichum juniperinum. Apothecia occuby a special microniche on the host plant. They develop between the leaf lamellae where the inflexed leaf margins meet. The parasite is distinguished by intracellular haustoria that arise directly from superficial hyphae without intervention of appressoria.

Greenhouse culture experiments on Kuehneromyces mutabilis

Authors: Issakainen, Jouni & Pihlaja, Kati & Smolander, Jenni
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 17-32.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.480
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Key words: Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Strophariaceae, mushroom cultivation, culture methods, edible, boreal, low-tech, wood decay

Abstract: The edible, wood-decaying mushroom Kuehneromyces mutabilis was studies in 3 years’ culture experiments in a climate-controlled greenhouse. Pre-incubated wood blocks and sawdust cylinders were buried in soil in test buckets. Tested variables included interstrain variation, inoculation methods, wood disinfectation, dimensions of wood blocks and mixtures of soil. K. mutabilis readily colonized various kinds of wood blocks and produced fruiting bodies regularly in unsterile culture conditions. It was found to be a promising species for low-tech culturing assuming further collection of efficient strains and refinement of methods. Sterilized sawdust bricks submerged in soil were most effective for strain testing. Blocks of young trees, including thin branches yielded well, suggesting that the species can be cultured on fractions of wood which have been considered less valuable in traditional forestry. Pasteurization of the wood blocks shortly in boiling water and adding the spawn as potato jelly were found to be useful, low-cost methods of inoculation. Too much acidic peat in the soil mixture was unfavorable for the production but its effects were compensated by adding CaCO3 in the soil.

Lophiotrema borealiforme, a new species close to L. boreale

Authors: Mathiassen, Geir & Granmo, Alfred & Stensrud, Øyvind
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 11-15.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.479
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Key words: Acomycota, Lophiotremataceae, Sweden, taxonomy

Abstract: Lophiotrema borealiforme (Ascomycota, Lophiotremataceae) is described as a new species. The description is based mainly on the holotype collection, but also on the eight other known specimens. Similarities and differences to the closest related species, Lophiotrema boreale, are descriped. Lophiotrema borealiforme is only known from southeastern, and the very southern part of Sweden.

Inocybe lemmi, a new species of section Marginatae from the alpine region of Sweden

Authors: Larsson, Ellen & Vauras, Jukka & Cripps, Cathy L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 57 (2017), Issue 1-2, pages 1-9.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2017.478
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Abstract: A new species, Inocybe lemmi, is described from alpine areas of Sweden. It is closely related to I. candidipes, associated with Pinus ponderosa and described from the south-western United States. Both belong to the I. praetervisa group in section Marginatae, reserved for species characterized by a stipe with abundant caulocystidia in the upper half, which are sparce in lower half of the stipe. Other species in the I. pratervisa group have distinctly nodulose heterodiametric spores, while I. lemmi and I. candipes have basally nodulose to angular spores with an elongated apex. A single collection from the alpine zone in Colorado was identified as representing a third lineage, closely related to I. lemmi and I. candipes. The holotype of the recently descriped species, I. tundrae, was studies and is confirmed to be a later synomym of I. rivularis.

Eleven Myxomycete species new to Finland

Authors: Varis, Elina & Karhilahti, Ari & Prättälä, Aurora
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 56 (2016), Issue 1-2, pages 61-72.
Doi: https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.2016.477
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Key words: Myxomycetes, Finland, distribution

Abstract: The following 11 Myxomycete species new to Finland are described: Clastoderma debaryanum, Comatricha longipila, Cribraria atrofusca, C. mirabilis, C. pertenuis, C. stellifera, Licea eleanorae, Physarum braunianum, P. flavicomum, P. mutabile and Stemonitis marjana. Cribraria pertenuis, C. stellifera, C. longipila and L. eleanorae were collected from moist chamber cultures. The rest of the specimens were collected from field. The known biota of Myxomycetes in Finland now includes altogether 225 species.