Abstract: Some new observations, relevant for specific, subgeneric and generic taxonomy, are presented on the characters of the species of Gyromitra Fr. and Pseudorhizina Jač. (Discomycetes, Pezizales), and the taxonomic significance of earlier known diagnostic features is dealt with and partly re-evaluated. On the basis of this information, it is considered that Pseudorhizina is a valid, independent genus, and that besides the type species, P. sphaerospora (Peck) Pouz., -it should also contain Gyromitra californica (Phill.) Rait. A tabulation comparing Gyromitra and Pseudorhizina is presented. It is also emphasized that, as previously suggested by the author, the genera Discina (Fr.) Fr. and Neogyromitra Imai should be included in Gyromitra, together forming a subgenus of their own, Gyromitra subg. Discina. Gyromitra gigas sensu McKnight is considered different from the true G. gigas, and is described as a new species, Gyromitra montana Harmaja. Seven new combinations, necessary due to the amendments of the two genera, are made: Gyromitra subgenus Discina (Fr.) Harmaja, Gyromitra apiculatula. (McKn.) Harmaja, Gyromitra korfii (Raitv.) Harmaja, Gyromitra macrospora (Bub.) Harmaja, Gyromitra olympiana (Kan.) Harmaja, Gyromitra warnei (Peck) Harmaja and Pseudorhizina californica (Phill.) Harmaja.