Author Archives: Petri

Report of 27 lichenicolous fungi species and three genera new to Finland

Authors: Puolasmaa,Arto & Kuusisto, Inka
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 61 (2023), Issue 2, pages 9–19.
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Key words: lichenicolous fungi, new records, herbarium specimens

Abstract: We studied systematically herbaria lichen specimens collected from Finland and from former Finnish parts of Russia to detect lichenicolous fungi. In total, 3355 lichen specimens were found with lichenicolous fungi from 160 taxa. We report here 27 species and three genera that are new to Finland. Three of these, Cercidospora epithamnolia, Cyclothyrium sp. and Roselliniella stereocaulorum, are reported as also new to Scandinavia. Three taxa are reported from a new host.

Myxomycetes in the Antarctic: A review

Authors: Velloso, Jorge Renato Pinheiro & Heberle, Marines de Avila & Costa, Alice Lemos & Lopes, Cassiane Furlan & da Silva, Fernando Augusto Bertazzo & Putzke, Jair & Cavalcanti, Laise de Holanda
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 61 (2023), Issue 2, pages 1–9.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, muscicolous, myxogastria, slime molds, South Pole

Abstract: This work summarize the results of Myxomycetes collections carried out by European and South American researchers on Antarctic ice free areas during the last fifty years. An annotated list and an identification key for the nine species with confirmed occurrence on the continent are presented.

Gymnopilus dilepis and G. lepidotus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota): synonym or not?

Authors: Fabrini, Fernando & Koroiva, Ricardo & Wartchow, Felipe
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 61 (2023), Issue 1, pages 11–23.
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Key words: Agaricomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Gymnopilae, Neotropic; taxonomy

Abstract: Currently described as part of Hymenogastraceae, Gymnopilus comprises up to 200 species distributed around the world, and 23 of these are found in Brazil. In this study, we discovered interesting specimens of G. dilepis growing with Zoysia japonica (Poaceae) grass in an urban area in the State of Paraíba. Originally described from Sri Lanka, this report treats a new and interesting record of this entity from Brazil. We also discuss whether to consider G. lepidotus as a synonym of G. dilepis based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Thus, as conclusion we prefer to maintain them as distinct entities and our material as G. dilepis based on morphological and ecological aspects.

Type studies of Cortinarius phaeopygmaeus and C. rusticellus, and a new salicticolous species C. chrysophilus

Authors: Kokkonen, Katri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 61 (2023), Issue 1, pages 1–10.
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Key words: Nomenclature, Molecular systematics, Agaricales, Alps, Switzerland, Finland

Abstract: This article deals with the taxonomy of three species belonging to Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia section Flexipedes. The micromorphologies and mostly ITS gene regions were examined from the lectotypes and some syntypes of Cortinarius phaeopygmaeus J. Favre and C. rusticellus J. Favre. Cortinarius phaeopygmaeus appeared to be a previously unrecognized species. Cortinarius rusticellus is reduced to a synonym of C. comatus J. Favre. Its lectotype and protologue agreed with C. comatus. The syntype of C. rusticellus was conspecific with C. lamoureae Bon. Cortinarius chrysophilus is described as new from Salix vegetation on boreal seashores and in the alpine zone. It belongs to the C. cucumisporus complex.

Venturioscypha nigropila (Hyphodiscaceae, Helotiales) – a new genus and species from xeric Pinus bark

Authors: Baral, Hans-Otto & Kosonen, Timo & Polhorský, Adam & Stöckli, Elisabeth & Huhtinen, Seppo & Hansen, Karen
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 60 (2022), Issue 1-2, pages 28–48.
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Key words: apothecial proliferation, desiccation tolerant, Hyphodiscus, multi-gene phylogeny, pigmented excipulum, Venturiocistella

Abstract: A new genus and species, Venturioscypha nigropila, is proposed for a minute inoperculate discomycete with long, cylindrical, partly flexuous, dark blackish-brown, smooth, finally thick-walled hairs. It has been collected repeatedly in Europe on dead, corticated branches of Pinus spp. attached to living or recently dead trees. At first glance the species resembles members of Pirottaea (Pyrenopezizaceae), but the relationship is shown by molecular phylogenetics to be close to Hyphodiscus, Hyphopeziza, Fuscolachnum, and Venturiocistella (Hyphodiscaceae). These genera differ in having hairs with more or less conspicuous warts, in Hyphopeziza also with glassy solidifications, and Venturiocistella in having in addition long, stiff, thick-walled, apically acute, dark brown hairs, which are warted in their lower part. The hair wall of Venturioscypha appears superficially smooth, but the surface is inconspicuously pitted as viewed under light microscopy. Venturioscypha is unique in Hyphodiscaceae by its peculiar hairs, inamyloid asci with a thin apical wall that ruptures irregularly by a terminal split at spore discharge, spores with a delicate sheath, and apothecial proliferation.

Results of myxomycete experiments could be affected by temperature in standard laboratory conditions

Authors: Rojas, Carlos & Valverde, Randall
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 60 (2022), Issue 1-2, pages 18-27.
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Key words: data, normalization, microcosm, protocol, slime molds

Abstract: Moist chamber cultures are valuable for myxomycete research and can be used for the analysis of ecological patterns with implications in ecosystem conservation programs. However, to make comparisons between datasets valid, the method should be redesigned considering potential biases affecting the generation of results. In the present study, both the effect of the general climate of the laboratory and two microclimatic variables within the moist chamber were studied in relation with the obtained data. Of all the recorded variables, temperature was observed to affect the results, both at the level of the general laboratory climate and in relation with the microclimate of the moist chamber. Increments in laboratory and moist chamber temperature increased the probability, three or fourfold, associated with a higher number of records or species within a group of equivalent samples. Such probabilistic differences are significant enough to suggest that using the moist chamber technique in “standard” laboratory conditions is not enough for cross-dataset comparisons that increase the potential of myxomycete data for applications outside of the biological sciences.

Observations of the impact of bushfire on a community of myxomycetes

Authors: Stephenson, Steven L. & Elliott, Todd F.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 60 (2022), Issue 1-2, pages 10-17.
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Key words: microbial ecology, moist chamber cultures, Amoebozoans, fire ecology, bushfires, slime molds

Abstract: In this study, we examined the impacts of a bushfire on a community of myxomycetes (also known as plasmodial slime moulds or myxogastrids) in northeastern New South Wales, Australia. Using the moist chamber culture technique, we prepared 40 moist chamber cultures from four different substrates. We collected the same four types of substrates on either side of a fire line approximately six months post-fire in order to assess what impact fire had on the myxomycete communities. Sixty percent of moist chamber cultures yielded evidence (plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes representing eleven species in eight genera. But only 40% of samples from the burned site were positive for myxomycetes, and only one species produced fruiting bodies. In contrast, 80% of samples from the unburned site were positive, and all eleven species were recorded. These data suggest that fire reduced the abundance and diversity of the myxomycete community at our site.

Amanita indogrisea, a new species of Amanita subg. Amanitina sect. Roanokenses from India

Authors: Kumar, Anil & Sharma, Roshi & Verma, Komal & Mehmood, Tahir & Sharma, Yash Pal
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 60 (2022), Issue 1-2, pages 1-9.
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Key words: Amanita, Jammu & Kashmir, new taxon, nrLSU, taxonomy

Abstract: Amanita indogrisea is described here as a new species from coniferous forests in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India based on morpho-anatomy and molecular data. This species is characterized by its small to medium-sized basidiomata, ash grey to lilac-grey pileal surface with ash grey to greyish brown pulverulent-floccose to felted veil remnants, ash grey to greyish-white stipes with ovoid to ellipsoid basal bulb, ellipsoid to elongated basidiospores (10.5–15.0 × 7.0–10.0 μm) and the absence of clamps in all tissues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nrLSU) sequences confirmed its identity as a new species nested within A. subgen. Amanitina sect. Roanokenses. Description of the new species is provided in this study.

Cyanoboletus macroporus (Boletaceae), a new bolete species from Pakistani forests Samina

Authors: Sarwar, Samina & Naseer, Arooj & Khalid, Abdul N.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 59 (2021), Issue 1-2, pages 78-87.
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Key words: Boletaceae, Boletes, Ectomycorrhizae, Himalayan range

Abstract: Cyanoboletus macroporus belonging to C. pulverulentus species complex is designated as a new species from the moist temperate and sub-alpine oak forests of Pakistan after in depth macroscopic, microscopic and phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region of nrDNA as well as comparison with allied taxa. This species belonging to Boletoid group is morphologically distinguished from allied taxa (Cyanoboletus flavosanguineus, C. hymenoglutinosus, C. pulverulentus, C. rainisii, and C. sinopulverulentus) by wider openings of pores. C. macroporus is also phylogenetically distinct from C. sinopulverulentus and C. pulverulentus, the most closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis outlined the existence of previously unknown species of this genus. Field photographs of fresh basidocarps and line drawings of micro-characters are provided along with a phylogenetic tree as well as a comparison table and a key of distinctive features of all the species in this genus. This is the first authentic species belonging to Cyanoboletus from Pakistan. Previously, only C. pulverulentus has been mentioned in literature, but no morphological data is available regarding this report. With the addition of this taxon, species number of Cyanoboletus will increase to eight.
From Pakistan, despite of the fact that there is great diversity of mushrooms in moist temperate areas (Yousaf et al. 2012), this is the first study that describes a species belonging to Cyanoboletus genus. Previously only one ambiguous species, Cyanoboletus pulverulentus, has been mentioned in literature (Iqbal & Khalid 1996), but with no available materials that could confirm this finding. In this study, Cyanoboletus macroporus is described as a new to science and increase the current species number of Cyanoboletus to eight.

Myxomycetes associated with a residential ecosystem

Authors: Stephenson, Steven L. & Novozhilov, Yuri K.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 59 (2021), Issue 1-2, pages 70-77.
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Key words: Arkansas, ecology, moist chamber cultures, niche, slime molds

Abstract: The myxomycetes associated with samples of the bark of living trees, ground litter, twigs, and aerial litter collected from a residential ecosystem were investigated with the use of moist chamber cultures. A total of 26 species representing 13 genera were recovered from 100 cultures prepared with samples of the four different types of substrates. The distribution patterns and ecology of these species are discussed in the context of the senior coauthor’s more than 40 years studying myxomycetes.