Category Archives: Volume 58(1) 2020

Contributions to the knowledge of aphyllophoroid and heterobasidioid funga (Basidiomycota) in Finland

Authors: Kunttu, Panu & Helo, Teppo & Kulju, Matti & Julkunen, Jari & Kotiranta, Heikki
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 118-143.
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Key words: Aphyllophorales, biogeography, corticioids, polypores, wood-associated fungi

Abstact: We contribute to the knowledge on the occurrences and distributions of both aphyllophoroid and heterobasidioid fungi in Finland. We present four species new to Finland, i.e. Helicogloea sebacea, Phanerochaete cremeo-ochracea, Steccherinum cremeoalbum, and Uncobasidium luteolum, as well as 46 new records (locations) of 34 rare or rarely collected species. Additionally, we report on 40 species considered new to a certain subzone of the boreal forest vegetation zone in Finland. These records contain notes on their substrata, and the ecology and distribution of nationally new species are briefly discussed.

Diversity of boreal small species of Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia with Salix

Authors: Kokkonen, Katri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 60-117.
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Key words: Taxonomy, Molecular systematics, Biogeography, Fennoscandia, Agaricales

Abstract: This work presents the genetic and morphological diversity of small Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia species found from moist Salix thickets in Finland. The boreal fungi were compared with several type and other specimens from the alpine zone or similar habitats from the temperate zone. The boreal and alpine zones had many common species: nearly all boreal species grew in the alpine zone with dwarf Salix. The species often had wide distributions, extending to North America. The genetic analyses consisted of ITS and RPB2 sequences. Both genetic and morphological variation was high. The species formed complexes, where the boundaries among species were often obscure. Very close sibling species were delimited based on differences at the same sites. Twenty-three boreal species were recognized. Four of them are described here as new: C. paulus and C. paululus as sibling species to C. pauperculus J.Favre, C. rusticelloides as a sibling species to C. rusticellus J.Favre, and C. vienoi as a sibling species to C. perzonatus Reumaux. Cortinarius sagarum, a sibling species to C. comatus J.Favre and C. vulpicolor M.M.Moser & McKnight, is described as new from arctic-alpine zones.

Supplementary Material

Table1. Accession numbers and origins of the specimens sequenced in the study.
Alignment of ITS sequences.
Alignment of RPB2 sequences.

Inocybe woglindeana, a new species of the genus Inocybe, thriving in exposed habitats with calcareous sandy soil

Authors: Bandini, Ditte & Vauras, Jukka & Weholt, Øyvind & Oertel, Bernd & Eberhardt, Ursula
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 41-59.
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Key words: Agaricales, Inocybaceae, Inocybe, Taxonomy, Type studies, Europe, Molecular systematics, ITS, LSU

Abstract: We describe a smooth-spored species of Inocybe, the basidiomes of which have been encountered growing with Salix in exposed habitats, often with calcareous sandy soils in Germany and Fennoscandia. The species is presented with a detailed description, photographs and microdrawings. Its relationship to similar taxa growing in the same environments is illustrated with ITS and LSU data. Morphologically the species would be keyed out as a member of I. sect. Tardae. For comparison, the types of somewhat similar species occurring in similar habitats as I. woglindeana, i.e. I. subpelargonium, I. rufuloides, I. inodora, I. neorufula and I. variispora, were examined morphologically; from the latter ITS and mtSSU V6 data were obtained. Molecular data supported a very close relationship between I. woglindeana and I. variispora. The two species are also morphologically similar, but differ in colour of pileus, in shape and details of hymenial cystidia, and also in their host and habitat. None of the other species, represented by our own collections or sequences from the public domain, are phylogenetically closely related to I. woglindeana.

First records of Inocybe melleiconica and I. pararubens for Northern Europe with a new variety from the alpine zone of the Scandinavian mountains

Authors: Vauras, Jukka & Larsson, Ellen
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 29-40.
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Key words: Inocybe, Agaricales, taxonomy, arctic-alpine mycology, fungal diversity

Abstract: Inocybe melleiconica and I. pararubens are reported as new for Northern Europe, from the alpine zone of Scandinavia. I. melleiconica is rather common on rich and more calcareous soils and usually associated with Salix herbacea. I. pararubens seems to be a rather rare species in the alpine zone and only encountered on calcareous soils on wet ground, associated with Salix reticulata and S. herbacea. We describe I. pararubens var. padjelantae to accommodate the alpine collections of I. pararubens. This taxon is also identified from Canada, arctic tundra of Keewatin. I. pararubens var. pararubens is recorded as new for Sweden, where it was found associated with Tilia cordata, on rich calcareous soil on the west coast of the country. I. castaneicolor is identified as a later synonym of I. pararubens. The spores of the alpine collections of both species treated here were found to be clearly broader than the ones given in the original descriptions.

Effect of wood residues on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum

Authors: Cortina-Escribano, Marta & Veteli, Pyry & Linnakoski, Riikka & Miina, Jari & Vanhanen, Henri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 16-28.
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Key words: bioconversion, Ganoderma lucidum, lignocellulosic biomass, mushroom cultivation, mycelial growth, mycelial morphology, wood residues

Abstract: Sawmill industries generate considerable amounts of low value wood residues. Fungal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass allows the conversion of wood residues into valuable products. The selection of the most suitable fungal strains and media are essential to optimise the bioconversion of wood residues and serves as a basis for mushroom cultivation industries. The aim of this study was to find the best combinations of Ganoderma lucidum strains and substrate media to optimise the cultivation of the fungus. Mycelial growth and culture characteristics of G. lucidum isolated from Betula pubescens and Picea abies in Finland were tested on agar media containing different wood residues. These included Betula sp., Populus tremula, Larix sp., Pinus sylvestris, Alnus incana and P. abies sawdust, which were added to malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and water agar. The results showed significant differences in the mycelial growth between all interaction levels (agar media, wood species and fungal strain). The addition of malt extract significantly enhanced the growth of the fungus in comparison to potato dextrose or water agar. The wood sawdust most suitable for mycelial growth was Betula sp., followed by P. tremula. Strains originally isolated from P. abies also presented higher mycelial growth in media with hardwood sawdust. These findings demonstrate that Betula sp. and P. tremula sawdust stimulate the growth of G. lucidum. Thus, it is possible to cultivate the fungus on a variety of wood residues from sawmill industries.

First Asian record of Comatricha anomala, a rare epiphytic corticolous myxomycete

Authors: Vlasenko, Anastasia & Vlasenko, Vyacheslav
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 10-15.
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Key words: Stemonitidales, epiphytic myxomycetes, moist chamber culture, SEM, new records

Abstract: The Corticolous Myxomycetes comprise a group of slime-moulds that grow primarily on the bark of living trees. This work presents the first records of Comatricha anomala in Asia with data on its localities, habitat, and distribution. Comatricha species commonly inhabit bark folds of living trees, occasionally other substrates. Of the approximately 36 species in the genus, 13 have been recorded in Asia. Comatricha anomala was previously known only from Europe, North America and Cuba. Comatricha anomala were isolated using the moist-chamber method, which is a highly efficient means to identify hidden diversity of myxomycetes. Sporocarps of C. anomala were found in Petri dishes while examining a bark obtained from living Pinus sylvestris from the Novosibirsk Region. C. anomala differs from other species of Comatricha in its unique spore ornamentation. Scanning electron microscopy necessary to characterize the ornamentation of the surface of the spores in the Comatricha genus. The work includes a revised description of C. anomala with a scanning electron micrograph study of the spore ornamentation.

Hygrophorus betulae, a new species described from subalpine birch forest in Finland

Authors: Larsson, Ellen & Bendiksen, Katriina
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 1-9.
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Key words: host preference, Hygrophoraceae, molecular systematics, taxonomy, woodwaxes

Abstract: A new species, Hygrophorus betulae, associated with Betula pubescens is described from the subalpine zone of northern Finland. The molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that it is closely related to H. mesotephrus, a species described from England and associated with Fagus. In morphology H. betulae is characterized by the small glutinous basidiomata and the pale pileus with an olive-grey disc zone. The colour of the disc zone is similar to that of H. olivaceoalbus. The species seems to be rare or may be overlooked because of the small and pale appearance.