Authors: Schnittler, Martin & Dagamac, Nikki H.A. & Leontyev, Dmitry & Shchepin, Oleg & Novozhilov, Yuri K. & Klahr, Anja
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 385-392.
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Key words: DNA barcoding, DNA extraction, elongation factor 1 alpha, direct PCR, spore collection, small ribosomal subunit, spore
Abstract: We present a workflow for efficient barcoding of myxomycete fructifications, which (i) requires less than 1000 spores, (ii) allows to collect spores with only a needle, (iii) works without any commercial kits, and (iv) is optimized for the use of 96-well PCR plates throughout the process. Specimens of 291 dark-spored nivicolous myxomycetes and 121 bright-spored members of the Trichiaceae were sequenced for the barcode marker 18S rDNA (SSU) with a low rate of failure and no detectable cross-contamination. Crude DNA extracts can be stored for further analyses: the elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF1A), a single-copy marker, was successfully amplified after four weeks of storage.As such our procedure will allow a time- and cost-efficient barcoding of large series of specimens.
Supplement 1: Collecting procedure for spores
(Video at https://youtu.be/0A4kTLNt9L8).
Supplement 2: Documentation of preparation
steps, necessary equipment and time for
barcoding a 96 well plate of myxomycetes
Supplement 3A–C: List of specimens
sequenced and BLAST statistics
Authors: Calaça, Francisco J. Simões & Araújo, Jéssica C. & Tereza, Vanessa B. & Moreira, Izabel C. & Xavier-Santos, Solange
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 374-384.
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Key words: dung-inhabiting microorganisms, myxogastrids, new records, slime-molds
Abstract: Fimicolous organisms are those that can grow on dung. These substrates offer conditions that favour colonization by microorganisms, such as high nutrient and moisture content and an alkaline-neutral pH that is especially advantageous in arid/desertic regions. There are about 250 species of myxomycetes known from Brazil, which are distributed in all geographic regions and biomes, obtained mainly from plant-derived substrates. However, there are some reports of fimicolous myxomycetes in Brazil. In this study, we expand this knowledge with new records of fimicolous myxomycetes in multiple Brazilian biomes. Between 2017 and 2018, horse and cattle dung samples were collected in municipal areas in the State of Goiás (Cerrado biome): Pirenópolis, Goiás, and Porangatu; and the State of Mato Grosso (Pantanal biome): Poconé. Samples were incubated in moist chambers and monitored for four months. Myxomycetous fructifications were observed, photographed under stereo and light microscopes, and morphologically identified. Vouchers were deposited at the HUEG Herbarium. A total of five species of myxomycetes were recorded: Arcyria cinerea and Physarum viride (Pirenópolis), P. cinereum (Goiás City), P. melleum (Porangatu), and Perichaena corticalis (Poconé). They represent the first records of fimicolous myxomycetes from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal biomes. Additionally, P. melleum was reported as fimicolous for the first time in Brazil and the second time in the world; P. corticalis was reported for the first time in midwest region as well as for the first time as fimicolous in Brazil; and P. viride was reported for the first time as fimicolous in the world.
Authors: Bortnikov, F. M. & Matveev, A. V. & Gmoshinskiy, V. I. & Novozhilov, Yu. K. & Zemlyanskaya, I. V. & Vlasenko, A. V. & Schnittler. M. & Shchepin. O. N. & Fedorova , N. A.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 316-373.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, bibliography, biodiversity, database, geographical distribution, literature review, Palearctic, slime molds
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the history and the level of research on biodiversity of myxomycetes in Russia. The first doubtless mention of myxomycetes in Russia dates back to the 18th century. Since then, numerous studies on myxomycete diversity in different regions of Russia have been published. Yu.K. Novozhilov summarized all accumulated data by publishing a list of 304 species in 2005. However, new data on species diversity, biogeography, and ecology of myxomycetes have been published in recent years. Recent research aims to fill this gap. This paper includes 321 sources, including studies published after 2005 and several works absent in previous reports. A full list of 455 myxomycete species found in Russia includes references to all literature sources. The analyzed database consists of more than 14 600 records in the “publication-region-species” format. Additionally, our research includes a detailed historical overview of the myxomycete studies in Russia. We hope that our information system, also available online at https://russia.myxomycetes.org/, will create a solid foundation for future studies of myxomycete biodiversity in Russia, particularly in the understudied regions.
Authors: Novozhilov, Yuri K. & Shchepin, Oleg N. & Gmoshinskiy, Vladimir I. & Schnittler, Martin
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 292-315.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, Arctic, Kola Peninsula, Myxogastria, Russia, biodiversity, mountainous tundra, northern taiga, slime molds, species inventory
Abstract: Northern taiga forests and subalpine plant communities of the Laplandskiy State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Kola Peninsula, Russia) were surveyed for myxomycetes. A total of 1675 specimens of myxomycete fruit bodies (sporocarps) were registered, among them 1584 records from field collections and 92 obtained from 210 moist chamber cultures of ground litter, bark of living trees, wood, and weathered dung of moose and willow ptarmigan. Most of 125 taxa (124 morphospecies and one variety) representing 34 genera were recorded only in the field (104 taxa from 32 genera), but some were exclusively obtained from moist chamber cultures (8 taxa from 5 genera). All of the recorded species are new for the Laplandskiy Reserve. Species numbers decreased among the four studied forest associations along the elevation and mositure gradient, and the Shannon index showed a similar trend: spruce forest (PICa; 84 taxa, H’=3.8), spruce-peat moss forest (PICb; 70, 3.5), dry spruce-pine forest (PIN; 62, 3.7), subalpine birch forest (SB; 30, 2.7). The estimated completeness of the survey according to the Chao1 estimator was 66%, indicating that most of the more common species should have been recovered. The trend among forest associations runs mainly parallel to diversity: PICa and PICb 83%, PIN 47%, SB 57%. The myxomycete assemblage of dry coniferous forests is the most distinctive among the three forest types and shows the highest number of indicator species. The overall degree of specialization of myxomycetes is higher for substrate type than for forest associations. Among substrate types, species diversity and richness increase from litter over bark to wood.
Authors: Pecundo, Melissa H. & Dagamac, Nikki Heherson A. & dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 275-291.
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Key words: Biosphere reserve, Ecotourism, Forest watershed, Plasmodial slime mold, UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme
Abstract: Million years ago, the island of Mindoro separated from mainland Asia. Its geologic origin led to many species distinct from Asia and the other islands of the Philippines. In this study, two lowland mountain forests – Mt. Malasimbo (MM) in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, and Mt. Siburan (MS) in Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro – were surveyed for myxomycetes. The combined opportunistic sampling in the field and the setting up of 1,260 moist chamber cultures retrieved a total of 1,007 fruiting body collections representing 50 species from 17 genera. A relatively higher number of taxa (49 species) was recorded in Mt. Siburan than in Mt. Malasimbo (36). Seventeen species were classified as rare with only four taxa that were widely distributed in both study sites, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Perichaena pedata, Diderma hemisphaericum, and Lamproderma scintillans. Higher species diversity and richness were noted for Mt. Siburan than Mt. Malasimbo, but a clear similarity in species composition (CC = 0.80) and abundance (PS = 0.72) can be observed between forest sites. This suggest that lowland natural forest habitats of Mt. Malasimbo and Mt. Siburan are hotspots of myxomycete diversity. This research represents the most comprehensive survey of myxomycetes in Mindoro Island.
Authors: Buisan, Prince Nur-Hakeem & Abu, Datujun & Catipay, John Paul & Dango, Charles Jason & Supremo, Janette & Dagamac, Nikki Heherson
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 250-259.
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Key words: microhabitat, plasmodia, slime mold, Southern Philippines, monotypic vegetation, agricultural litter
Abstract: Although studies of myxomycetes in plantations have started to appear in the last few years, some agroecosystems with homogenous vegetation remain unexplored. This holds true for rice agroecosystems. A study comparing the occurrence of myxomycetes in organic and conventional rice fields in the province of Cotabato was carried out in rice farms in the municipalities of Kabacan and Midsayap. Ground and aerial litters were randomly collected from rice fields to set up moist chamber cultures. Three cosmopolitan species of myxomycetes are reported in this study, namely Arcyria cinerea, Diderma hemisphaericum, and Perichaena depressa. Moist chambers set up with rice litter substrates from organic fields showed significantly higher percentage yield than moist chambers with the substrates from conventional rice farms. This study is the first to explore the distribution of myxomycetes in rice agroecosystems of the Philippines and to compare different farming practices.
Authors: Takahashi, Kazunari
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 260-274.
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Key words: Biogeography, Corticolous myxomycetes, Cryptomeria japonica, Phylogenetic distribution, Last glacial refuges, Snow cover depth, Species diversity
Abstract: Cryptomeria japonica, commonly known as Japanese cedar, is now widely distributed from glacial refuges to the entire Japanese archipelago, after the last ice age. The bark surface provides a habitat for many corticolous myxomycetes. Although corticolous myxomycetes are known to prefer tree species, the association between myxomycete distribution and host tree (C. japonica) divergence across the refuges has not been investigated. In this study, myxomycete communities in five refuges were assessed and compared with those in 14 peripheral areas. Bark samples were collected from at least 10 trees per site and were subjected to the moist chamber culture method (10 Petri dishes per tree) to examine the myxomycete fruiting bodies strictly. Environmental variables such as geographical location, climate condition, and bark traits (tree size, bark pH, and electric conductivity) were measured. Fruiting bodies appeared in 91% of the cultures, and 32 taxa (31 species and one varie ty) were recorded. Comparison of the communities between refuges and peripheral sites showed six myxomycete species, Arcyria cinerea, Macbrideola argentea, Cribraria minutissima, Clastoderma debaryanum, Physarum viride and Physarum pusillum, were significantly more abundant in the refuges and these communities preserved higher species diversity. By nonmetric multidimensional scaling, the communities in the Pacific side and the Sea of Japan side were ordered based on snow cover depth, in a pattern similar to the phylogenetic distribution of the host tree. Myxomycete groups were identified in the northern region, the Sea of Japan region, and the southern region (including Yakushima Island) of Japan. Thus, the refugial tree populations preserved the myxomycete species diversity on their bark and functioned as an important hotspot for myxomycetes. The distribution of corticolous myxomycetes was associated with the diversification and biogeographical distribution history of their host tree, C. japonica.
Authors: Yatsiuk, Iryna & Adamonytė, Gražina & Kastanje, Veiko
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 241-249.
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Key words: slime molds, Baltic countries, species diversity
Abstract: The history of the myxomycetes research in Estonia dates back to the middle of the 19th century, with first data occurring in the H. A. Dietrich’s book published in 1856. The current work summarizes all the published reports of Estonian myxomycetes as well as some unpublished data and herbaria revisions. After the assessment of the taxonomic status of published records and bringing in line with currently accepted taxonomy, we present the updated checklist of the myxomycetes of Estonia, comprising 150 species representing 39 genera. Eleven species were excluded from the list as doubtful.
Authors: Kryvomaz, Tetiana & Michaud, Alain & Stephenson, Steven L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 215-240.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, biodiversity, island myxomycetes, plant substrates, species inventory, tropics
Abstract: The checklist provided herein contains 143 species and infra-specific taxa of myxomycetes representing six orders, 12 families and 29 genera known from the Seychelles Islands. These records are the result of 878 field collections and 468 samples processed with the use of the moist chamber techinque. The overall study involved expeditions to the granitic group of islands Mahé, Praslin, La Digue, Curieuse, Félicité, and data from the literature for the coral Aldabra atoll. The taxonomic structure of the myxomycete biota for the islands studied indicates a predominance of members of the order Physarales (74 taxa). Th e main genera are Physarum (38 species and two varieties), Didymium (17 species), Cribraria (11 species), Arcyria (eight species) and Stemonitis (six species and two varieties). For all six islands only a single species of myxomycete (Physarum crateriforme) was shared in common. For the total assemblage of species recorded from all of the islands, 4% species were abundant, 12% species were common, 29% were found occasionally, 42% were rare, and 13% species had only a single record. The most abundant species were Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata, Diderma effusum, Hemitrichia calyculata, Physarum compressum, and P. melleum. Based on data from 50 different localities with 90 collecting plots, 32% of all specimens were associated with coastal vegetation, 30% with lowland localities, 19% with intermediate forests, 9% with riverine forests, 8% with mountain forests, and only 2% with mangrove swamps. In general, this annotated checklist clearly shows that isolated tropical islands can support a diverse assemblage of myxomycetes.
Authors: Policina, Monica S. & dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 201-214.
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Key words: Angat Watershed Forest Reserve, cardinal points, plasmodial slime mold, tropical forests, tropical monsoon
Abstract: Barks of living trees serve as a microhabitat for a distinct assemblage of myxomycetes, the corticolous myxomycetes. In this study, we sampled 86 living Swietenia macrophylla trees for bark samples at four cardinal directions (North, East, South, West) to prepare 344 moist chambers. Of these, only 134 moist chambers yielded myxomycetes recorded either as fruiting bodies or plasmodia. Our study also recorded a total of 125 determinable fruiting bodies which were identified as belonging to 22 species, 11 genera, and 7 taxonomic orders and with the most number of taxa recorded in the west (17) and south (14), followed by east (12) and north (11) directions. Eleven taxa were recorded as abundant, with three taxa of Licea having the highest number of records. Comparing species composition, only four species were common in all directions. Following statistical analysis, we did not observe any significant differences between the diversity values per cardinal direction.