Category Archives: Volume 29 1989

A monograph of Hyaloscypha and allied genera

Authors: Huhtinen, Seppo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 29 (1989), Issue 2, pages 45-252.
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Abstract:  The genera Hyaloscypha Boud., Phialina Höhnel and Hamatocanthoscypha Svr. are monographed on a world basis. Hyaloscypha, with 27 recognized taxa, is circumscribed to contain whitish and mostly lignicolous species with tapering and aseptate hairs. Dextrinoid reactions, hair vesture and ascal development are shown to be important diagnostic characters. Two subgenera are recognized within Hyaloscypha. Seven new species are described: H. britannica Huhtinen, H. diabolica Huhtinen, H. epiporia Huhtinen, H. latispora Huhtinen, H. nipponica Huhtinen, H. strobilicola Huhtinen, and H. usitata Huhtinen. A new variety is published in Hyaloscypha secalina Velen. A new name, H. occulta Huhtinen, is proposed for H. parvula Arendh. & R. Sharma. The following new combinations are made: Hyaloscypha albohyalina (P. Karst.) Boud. var. spiralis (Velen.) Huhtinen (Chrysothallus s.), H. albohyalina var. tigillaris (P. Karst) Huhtinen (Peziza t.), Hyaloscypha fuckelii Nannf. var. alniseda (Velen.) Huhtinen (Hyaloscypha a.), Hyaloscypha leuconica (Cooke in Stevenson) Nannf. var. bulbopilosa (Feltg.) Huhtinen (Dasyscypha hamata var. b.), Hyaloscypha querciola (Velen.) Huhtinen (Uncinia q.) and Hyaloscypha aureliella (Nyl.) Huhtinen (Peziza a.). The genus Phialina, with eight recognized species, is circumscribed to contain foliicolous and herbicolous taxa with yellow pigment inside the paraphyses and the tapering and often septate hairs. Presence of croziers and lack of dextrinoid reaction are also stressed at the generic level. One new species, P. setiigera Huhtinen is described. The following new combinations are made: Phialina lachnobrachyoides (Raitv.) Huhtinen (Phialoscypha l.), Phialina foliicola (Graddon) Huhtinen (Uncinia f). A new name, Phialina pusilla Huhtinen, is proposed for Hyaloscypha pusilla Arendh. & R. Sharma. The genus Hamatocanthoscypha, with 10 recognized taxa, is delimited to comprise mostly white to coloured, stipitate inhabitants of litter. The hairs are typically cylindrical-tapering and uncinate. Three new species are described: Hamatocanthoscypha helicotricha Huhtinen, H. obsoleta Huhtinen and H. ocellata Huhtinen. The following new combinations are made: Hamatocanthoscypha melanabasis (Arendh. & R. Sharma) Huhtinen (Debaryoscyphus m.), Hamatocanthoscypha laricionis (Velen.) Svr. var. dryopteridis (Bøhler) Huhtinen (Hyaloscypha d.), Hamatocanthoscypha uncipila (Le Gal) Huhtinen (Hyaloscypha u.), HamatocanJhoscypha uncinata (Phill.) Huhtinen (Peziza u.), Hamatocanthoscypha uncinata var. phaeotricha (K. Holm & L. Holm) Huhtinen (Unciniella laricionis (Velen.) K. Holm & L. Holm var. p.), and Hamatocanthoscypha laricionis var. minutissima (Velen.) Huhtinen (Uncinia m.). Of the 137 excluded taxa, Phialina montana Raitv. and Pezizella myriadea Mouton are combined with Calycellina Hohnel and Hyaloscypha sulfurina Dennis with Trichopeziza Mont & Dur. The pattern of variation in the taxa studied is illustrated in detail. Sporograms and frequency distribution curves are provided for most taxa. Ascal and spore dimensions and shape are shown to be dependent on the reagent used. The taxonomic status of 15 closely related genera is treated.
Cheiromycella microscopica (P. Karst.) Hughes is shown to be the anamorphous state of Hyaloscypha aureliella (H. stevensonii (Berk. & Broome) Nannf.). A phialidic anamorph characterizes the type variety of Hamatocanthoscypha laricionis (Velen.) Svr. and H. uncipila. An immature, dematiaceous anamorph developed in cultures of Phialina lachnobrachya (Desm.) Raitv.

High metal contents found in Fulico septica (L.) Wiggers and some other slime molds (Myxomycetes)

Authors: Setälä, Annamaija & Nuorteva, Pekka
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 29 (1989), Issue 1, pages 37-44.
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Key words: Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Fuligo septica, Hg, myxomycetes, slime mold, Zn

Abstract:  The metal contents of Fulico septica, seven other slime molds and two unidentified slime mold plasmodia were studied and compared with the levels in Vaccinium myrtillus leaves collected at the same time from the same place. The levels of Cd, Cu and especially Zn were generally far higher in the slime molds. The levels of Zn in Fulico septica were so high (4 000-20 000 ppm) that it is difficult to understand how a living organism can tolerate them. The levels of AI and Fe, on the other hand, were higher in V. myrtillus. This research underlines the importance of humus as a source of metals for the organisms living in it. It also shows simultaneous peak occurrence of the useful micronutrients Cu and Zn and the toxic Cd, to which the former seems to be antagonistic. The main value of this material is that it provides information for future work.

Hysterothecia production of Lophodermium species (Ascomycetes) in ralation to industrial air pollution

Authors: Heliövaara, Kari & Väisänen, Rauno & Uotila, Antti
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 29 (1989), Issue 1, pages 29-36.
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Abstract:  The abundance of Lophodermium species on Pinus sylvestris was studied in the surroundings of the industrial town Harjavalta in southwestern Finland. The hysterothecia production of these ascomycete species in litter needles was related to the distance from the factory complex producing copper, nickel, sulphuric acid and fertilizers, and to the chemical composition of living needles.
All the species suffered from a high level of industrial air pollution, being almost totally absent within 800 m of the factory complex. In most cases, the numbers of hysterothecia per needle correlated positively with the distance from the factory complex. Depending on the species, 5-48% of the variation of hysterothecia production could be explained by the concentrations of elements in living pine needles, the level of heavy metals playing a major role.

On Fennoscandian polypores 10. Boletopsis leucomelaena and B. grisea described and illustrated

Authors: Niemelä, Tuomo & Saarenoksa, Reima
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 29 (1989), Issue 1, pages 12-28.
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Abstract:  Two European species are accepted in the polypore genus Boletopsis: B. leucomelaena (Pers.) Fayod and B. grisea (Peck) Bond. & Sing. Both are described and a comparison is made of the best determinative characters. The nomenclature is discussed and some common misapplications reviewed. B. leucomelaena has dark-capped, fragile fruit bodies and grows predominantly in rich spruce forests. B. grisea is silvery grey to dirty grey-brown, fairly hard, but when fresh easily tom in a radial direction; it grows almost solely in poor dry pine heath forests. The distributions of both species in Norway, Sweden and Finland are summarized with abbreviated locality lists and distribution maps, and the total distributions are estimated on the basis of published photographs. B. leucomelaena, being the more southern of the two, is rare in Fennoscandia and may need some protection. The abundance of B. grisea varies greatly, depending on the weather in the growing season, but in suitable years it is locally common, especially in the north. Both species are illustrated with in situ colour photographs and microscopical drawings.

Polish Endogonaceae 1. Acaulospora bireticulata, Entrophospora infrequens, Glomus caledonium, and Scutellospora pellucida

Authors: Błaszkowski, Janusz
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 29 (1989), Issue 1, pages 1-10.
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Abstract:  The occurrence and distribution of four species of the Endogonaceae in Poland are described and illustrated. Entrophospora infrequens (Hall) Ames & Schn., Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd) Trappe & Gerd., and Scutellospora pellucida (Nicol. & Schenck) Walker & Sanders probably occur in the whole of Poland, but in low frequencies, and Acaulospora bireticulata Rothw. & Trappe seems to be a very rare species, having been found in only 2 of the 141 soil samples studied. G. caledonium is new to Poland and the other species were found for the first time in Europe.