Category Archives: Volume 32 1992

New records of rare and threatened polypores in Finland

Authors: Niemelä, Tuomo & Kotiranta, Heikki & Penttilä, Reijo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 2, pages 81-94.
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Key words: Antrodiella sitchensis, Antrodiella parasitica, Ceriporiopsis balanae, Finland, Funalia trogii, polypores, taxonomy, threatened fungi, virgin forest

Abstract:  The polypores (Basidiomycetes) Antrodia sitchensis (Baxter) Gil b. & Ryv., Ceriporiopsis balaenae Niemelä and Funalia trogii (Berk.) Bond. & Singer are reported as new to Finland. Antrodiella parasitica Vampola is tentatively reported from Finland, but its taxonomy has not been sufficiently worked out. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of A. sitchensis are described and we propose that the species might fmd a natural placement in Fomitopsis or Amyloporia, rather than in Antrodia. The generic demarcation between Trametes, Funalia and Coriolopsis is discussed, and the critical difference is reported to lie in the reaction of the skeletal hyphae to Cotton Blue: Trametes is acyanophilous, Funalia and Coriolopsis cyanophilous. As a gradual transition exists between the characters of Funalia and Coriolopsis, we prefer to join these taxa in a single genus, Funalia. On this basis we accept the species currently known as Trametes trogii Berk. in Funalia. Perenniporia tenuis (Schw.) Ryv. var. pulchella (Schw.) Lowe was considered to be extinct in Finland, but has now been rediscovered. We compare it with Perenniporia tenuis var. tenuis, P. medulla-panis (Jacq.: Fr.) Donk, P. subacida (Peck) Donk, and P. fulviseda (Bres.) Dhanda. New Finnish records of the following rare species are listed: Antrodiella citrinella Niemelä & Ryv., Pilaporia sajanensis (Parm.) Niemelä, Polyporus pseudobetulinus (Pilát) Thorn et al., Skeletocutis lilacina David & Keller, and Tyromyces canadensis Overh. ex Lowe. The ecology and distribution of most of the species are discussed.

Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: A comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican cultures

Authors: Nyberg, Harri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 2, pages 71-80.
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Key words: Amanita muscaria, hallucinogenic fungi, Mesoamerican cultures, Psilocybe, shamanism, Siberian cultures

Abstract: The religious uses of hallucinogenic mushrooms in northern Eurasian and Mesoamerican cultures are compared. In northern Eurasia, some shamanistic cultures have used the Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers.); Mesoamericans, mainly mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe (Fr.) Kummer. The hallucinogenic potency of the former is due to isoxazole compounds and of the latter, psilocybine-type compounds. Despite similarities between ihe uses in these two cultural areas, there are also marked differences: the Fly Agaric did not seem to have been an object of religious, ritual veneration in northern Eurasia, whereas this was true for the Psilocybe mushrooms in Mesoamerica. This is suggested to be a result of the difference between these two mushroom groups in their pharmacological and clinical effects on man and also a result of vast cultural differences between the areas in question. The cultural and religious differences between northern Eurasian and Mesoamerican use of hallucinogenic fungi and the significance of these differences are discussed.

Microfungi isolated from wood of Scots pine in Finland

Authors: Savonmäki, Sirkka & Salonen, Arvi & Ruokola, Anna-Liisa
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 2, pages 65-70.
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Key words: blue-stain fungi, microfungi, Pinus, wood

Abstract:  Non-basidiomycetous fungi were isolated from the wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from 30 localities in Finland. They include blue-stain fungi, soil fungi and coprophilous and nematophagous fungi. The commonest fungus species were wind-borne blue-staining fungi. Fungi occurring with a frequency of more than 1% were Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud, Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carm., Leptodontidium beauverioides (de Hoog) de Hoog, Oidiodendron cerealis (Thüm.) Barron, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch) H. & P. Syd., O. piliferum (Fr.) H. & P. Syd., Phialophora fastigiata (Lagerb. & Melin) Conant, Rhinocladiella atrovirens Nannf., Trichoderma polysporum (Link) Rifai, T. viride Pers. and Ulocladium consortiale (Thüm.) Simmons. As many as 35 species are apparently new to Finland, three of these belonging to the Zygomycotina, six to the Ascomycotina and 26 to the Deuteromycotina.

Finnish records of discomycetes: Cudoniella viridula and new species of Orbiliaster

Authors: Huhtinen, Seppo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 2, pages 61-64.
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Key words: Ascomycetes, Cudoniella viridula, Finland, Orbiliaster, taxonomy

Abstract:  Cudoniella viridula Grelet, formerly known only from the type collection from France, has been re-collected and an emended description is given. Study of the holotype showed that the type contains no mature apothecia. A potential earlier name, Helotium proximellum P. Karst. is best treated as a nomen dubium. A new species, Orbiliaster paradoxa, is described. The type of the genus Orbiliaster Dennis, O. pilosa, is re-examined and the description emended.

Basidiomycetes at the timberline in Lapland 4. Postia lateritia n. sp. and its rust-coloured relatives

Authors: Renvall, Pertti
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 2, pages 43-60.
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Key words: Distribution, Finland, Oligoporus, polypores, Postia lateritia, Postia septentirionalis, taxonomy

Abstract:  The taxonomy of the Postia fragilis group (polypores, Basidiomycetes) is revised and three species are recognized in North Europe: P.fragilis (Fr.) Jül., P. leucomallella (Murr.) Jül. and P. lateritia Renvall n. sp. The species are described and illustrated, and the Finnish distributions are mapped. The first two species are widespread in Europe and in North America. P. lateritia is a saprotrophic polypore here reported from Finland, Sweden and Canada. It is associated with a brown rot and has been found almost exclusively on decorticated windfalls of Pinus sylvestris L. in old forests of coniferous trees. A neotype is selected for Polyporus fragilis Fr. and the status of the genus Postia Fr. is reviewed and it is considered to be validly published; the genus Oligoporus Bref. is accepted in a restricted sense to comprise species which have short and often cyanophilous spores and which tend to produce chlamydospores. The new combination Postia septentrionalis (Vampola) Renvall is proposed and the identity of Leptoporus lowei Pilát (Oligoporus lowei (Pilát) Gilb. & Ryv.) is discussed.

Basidiomycetes at the timberline in Lapland 3. Two new boreal polypores with intricate hyphal systems

Authors: Renvall, Pertti & Niemelä, Tuomo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 1, pages 29-42.
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Key words: Antrodia infirma, Antrodia primaeva, Boreal, Dichomitus stenospora, Finland, hyphal system, polypores, primeval forest, taxonomy

Abstract:  Two new saprotrophic polypore species, Antrodia primaeva Renvall & Niemelä and A. infirma Renvall & Niemelä (Basidiomycetes), are described. They have mostly been collected in northern Finland. Both are associated with brown rot and they have been found almost exclusively on old windfalls of Pinus sylvestris. A. primaeva resembles Dichomitus squalens (Karst.) Reid in having resupinate or effused-reflexed basidiocarps which are white to bay and soft when fresh. The overall structure of A. primaeva is trimitic; the tubes are dimitic, while the subiculum and cap context consist predominantly of generative hyphae, but contain skeletals and scattered binding hyphae close to the tube bottoms and sometimes next to the wood. Dichomitus squalens differs in having arboriform and cyanophilous skeleto-binding hyphae. A. primaeva is microscopically close to A. serialis (Fr.) Donk, but skeletal hyphae are dominant in the context of the latter and its whole structure is tougher. A. infirma is dimitic with very rare skeletal hyphae. A. oleracea (Davidson & Lombard) Ryv. is similar to it, but has shorter basidiospores, shorter and almost pyriform basidia, smaller pores and different hosts. A. infirma is differentiated from Postia rancida (Bres.) Larsen & Lombard and P. placenta (Fr.) Larsen & Lombard by having true skeletals and longer, fusiform basidiospores. The vegetative hyphae of both the new species are unevenly distributed in the basidiocarp. Skeletal hyphae are often found in clusters in the trama, and horizontal sectioning is a useful method for examining their occurrence and distribution. The authors consider that the significance of the structure of hyphal system as one of the basic characters in the taxonomy of polypores requires some re-evaluation. In addition, a new polypore species, Dichomitus stenospora Renvall & Niemelä, is described on the basis of North American material.

Biogeographical analysis of Finnish polypore assemblages

Authors: Väisänen, Rauno & Heliövaara, Kari & Kotiranta, Heikki & Niemelä, Tuomo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 1, pages 17-28.
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Key words: biogeography, gradient analysis, polypores, rarity

Abstract:  The analysis was based on the Finnish records in 100 x 100 km quadrats of species of the polypore genera Phellinus, Coltricia, Inonotopsis, Inonotus, Onnia, Phaeolus, Fistulina, Polyporus, Ganoderma and ischnoderma. Their distributions were preliminarily classified and related to environmental variables, using multivariate methods (two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis). From the distribution patterns of the polypore species, it was possible to distinguish blocks of quadrats showing some resemblance to recognized vegetational zones. The continentality and number of tree species had the highest canonical coefficient values on the first axis of the canonical correspondence analysis, but the model was improved by the distribution of Picea abies and the proportion of grass-herb forest types. The quadrats with the most deviant rarity and typicalness indices were concentrated in the Åland archipelago, the surroundings of Helsinki and Turku, and in the area of the virgin forest of Pisavaara and the Paijfume lake district in southern Central Finland. These deviations reflect both exceptional species assemblages and uneven collecting activity.

Peniophora junipericola (Aphyllophorales, Corticiaceae): distribution and spore variability

Authors: Parnasto, Erast & Parnasto, Ilmi
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 1, pages 13-16.
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Key words: Peniophora junipericola, variability of basidiospores, xerothermic distribution

Abstract:  Peniophora junipericola J. Erikss. is a possibly xerotherrnic species. It is very common on the western islands of Estonia and near the Baltic Sea in Latvia, frequent in some eastern parts of Sweden, and rare or very rare elsewhere. The spore size and form do not differ significantly in specimens collected in Estonia, the Crimea, the Tianschan or other localities.

Mythicomyces corneipes, a rare agaric, in Fennoscandia

Authors: Huhtinen, Seppo & Vauras, Jukka
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 1, pages 7-12.
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Key words: Agaricales, Basidiomycetes, Mythicomyces corneipes, NW Europe, taxonomy

Abstract:  The taxonomy, distribution and ecology of the rarely collected agaric Mythicomyces corneipes (Fr.) Redhead & Smith are treated. The species has been collected from six sites in Fennoscandia. These collections also represent the known European distribution. A colour photograph, the morphology and a detailed account of the ecology are presented. Features not reported earlier are the amyloid reaction in the cystidial walls, the dextrinoid reaction of the spores and their small plage.

Nutrient and heavy metal contents compared among five mushrooms from Pakistan

Authors: Wahid, Muhammad & Sattar, Abdus & Iqbal, Aftab
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 32 (1992), Issue 1, pages 1-5.
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Key words: Amino acids, cultivated and wild mushrooms, heavy metals, potential nutrients

Abstract:  The edible mushroom species Agaricus campestris, Morchella esculenta, Morchella conica, Pleurotus ostreatus and Volvariella volvacea were analysed for proximate composition, energy, amino acids and heavy metals. The results indicated wide variation in protein (19.44-36.60%), fats (1.20-2.60%), fibre (13.14-17.60%), ash (8.00-15.93%) and carbohydrate (31.73-50.70%). The coefficient of variation was highest for Pb arid Mn, intermediate for Cd, Cu and Fe, and least for Zn. Marked variation was also observed for essential and non-essential amino acids.