Abstract: Twelve species of Myxomycetes are reported from Finland for the first time: Amaurochaete tubulina (Alb. & Schw.) Macbr., Badhamia populina A. & G. Lister, Barbeyella minutissima Meylan, Cribraria macrocarpa Sch· ·d., C. minutissima Schw., Diderma trevelyani (Grev.) Fries, Hemitrichia calyculata (Speg.) M.L. Farr, Lepidoderma chailletii Rost., Licea parasitica (Zukal) G.W. Martin, Physarum murinum Lister, P. rigidum (G. Lister) G. Lister and Stemonaria irregularis (Rex) Nann.-Brem., Sharma & Yamam. A new variety for Finland is Trichia decipiens (Pers.) Macbr. var. olivacea Meylan. One of the 12 species, Physarum rigidum, is new to Fennoscandia.
Abstract: The host range of Marssonina populi and M. castagnei, and the relative susceptibility of various poplars to these fungi, were determined through laboratory inoculation tests and a field study. Nine species or hybrids of Populus in sect. Aigeiros and Tacamahaca were found susceptible to M. populi, and five species or hybrids in section Populus (Leuce) proved to be susceptible to M. castagnei. The life cycle of M. populi was also studied. M. castagnei was recorded for the first time in Finland.
Abstract: Two species in the section Calosporae are recognized in NW Europe: Inocybe calospora Quélet and I. multicoronata A. H. Smith. The species are described, illustrated and mapped, and their ecology and taxonomic relationships are discussed. I. multicoronata is reported as new to Europe, where it is known from one locality in Finland.
Abstract: Three species are recognized in the Tricholoma caligatum group in Europe: T. caligatum (Viv.) Ricken, T. nauseosum (Blytt) Kytöv., comb. nova, and T. dulciolens Kytöv., spec. nova. The first two species are also reported from North Africa. The East Asian T. matsutake (S. Ito & Imai) Singer is included in T. nauseosum, which is thus an edible fungus of major international interest. The distribution of each species in the study area is mapped, and their ecology and relationships are discussed.
Abstract: The application of immunocytochemical and immunobiochemical research methods to fungi has showed that microtubules and microfilaments are common structural components in the hyphae. In eukaryotic organisms other than fungi, microtubules and microfilaments are known to be involved in a variety of motile intracellular processes, such as directed movement of cell organelles, and in mitosis. In long fungal cells with apical extension, the microtubules and microfilaments may serve as pathways and guiding elements for the movement of nuclei and mitochondria towards the apex and also for transport of material from the site of synthesis to the site of secretion at the hyphal apex. The cytoskeletal elements, especially microtubules, may also play an integral role in the reciprocal exchange and migration of nuclei associated with the sexual reproduction in higher fungi. Unlike other cell organelles, microtubules and microfilaments respond to extra- and intracellular changes by assembly and disassembly cycles, which may be reflected in the growth and morphology of the hyphae. This makes microtubules and microfilaments attractive candidates through which the regulation of growth and morphogenesis in fungal hyphae may take place.
Abstract: The condition and types of ectomycorrhizae of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and the biological activity of soil micro-organisms in the humus layer of polluted pine forests were studied in the surroundings of Oulu, northern Finland. Biological activity, expressed as the rate of humus respiration and as dehydrogenase enzyme activity, decreased towards the central, most polluted area with higher sulphur and nitrogen contents in the humus layer. The ectomycorrhizae of Scots pine were less ramified and poorly developed in the central area. The number of mycorrhizal types and the number of mycorrhizal species encountered in the sporophore inventories were lower in the two most polluted zones than in the cleaner sites. The type composition of the mycorrhizae was altered in the polluted sites.
Abstract: The aluminium tolerances of 12 ectomycorrhizal and 48 saprophytic fungi, mainly basidiomycetes were studied by cultivating aseptic cultures on MMN or ME solution to which aluminiun sulphate, potassium aluminium sulphate or aluminium chloride was added. Suillus luteus, S. variegatus, S. bovinus and Paxillus involutus grew in concentrations over 10 g Al+++/l. Species of Amanita and Trichloma were more sensitive. Saprophytic species (Mycena, Marasmius, Pleurotus) had in general much lower tolerance, concentrations of 100-250 mg Al+++/l being limiting. It is suggested that the high tolerance of mycorrhizal species can be regarded as an adaptation to naturally aluminiumrich conditions in acid forest soils.
Abstract: The distribution of Scots pine mycorrhizal types and the cytopathology of selected mycorrhizae were studied in the surroundings of a fluting mill in Central Finland. A decrease in the mycorrhizal types was observed in the close vicinity of the factory. The mycorrhizae showed several disturbances in their ultrastructure, the most important being accumulation of tannins in the root cortical cells, intracellular penetration by the ectomycorrhizal fungi and accumulation of electron-dense deposits m the fungal vacuoles. The trees with only slight crown injuries showed clear injuries in their rootlets and mycorrhizae. A rapid staining method, Ponceau S, was tested for stammg pme mycorrhizae and the results of some staining trials are reported.