Abstract: Substantial quantities of calcium oxalate annually reach the ground with the forest litter, primarily in the form of calcium oxalate monohydrate. More calcium oxalate is produced by soil fungi, in the form of both monohydrate and dihydrate. The quantities of calcium bound in calcium oxalate are notably high in litter as compared with the amounts of exchangeable calcium. In the case of humus, on the other hand, the corresponding proportion is usually small because oxalate breaks down rather rapidly in the soil. For some reason, however, it seems that calcium oxalate accumulates to a much greater extent in white rot than in brown rot. Despite the fact that a large number of basidiomycetous fungi are capable of using oxalate, they seem to be of only minor importance in the break-down of calcium oxalate.
Abstract: The material consisted of 1035 samples of ripening cereals gathered from 119 1ocalities in southern Finland and 32 samples of Agropyron repens. Wojnowicia graminis (Me Alp.) Sacc. & D. Sacc. (Deuteromycotina: Sphaeropsidales) was found in 32 cereal samples from 22 localities. The fungus was fairly common on Triticum aestivum (winter wheat), in frequent on Secale cereale and Hordeum vulgare, and absent from Avena sativa. It was recorded on six samples of Agropyron repens from six localities. W. graminis causes symptoms resembling the take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx & Olivier. In fields in southern Finland, W. graminis appears to be rather rare, sparse and of negligible pathogenic importance.
Abstract: The rare Agaricus pictus Fr. (Agaricales, Tricholomataceae) has been found by the author for the first time in Finland, in some southern localities. Its main characters are briefly described, and the new combination Mycena picta (Fr.) Harmaja is made.
Abstract: The author has scrutinized the holotypes of Agaricus anisarius Peck, A. carnosior Peck, Clitocybe phyllophiloides Peck, C. pusilla Peck, C. schulmannii Harmaja, and C. subfumosa Bigelow. The three first-named are synonymous with other agaric species, while the last three are valid but are excluded from Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude. The following new combinations are made: Calocybe pusilla (Peck) Harmaja, Lyophyllum schulmannii (Harmaja) Harmaja, and Omphalina subfumosa (Bigelow) Harmaja.
Abstract: The study confirms the existence of apparently genetic variation in the size, shape, perisporium prominence, and oil drop size of the spores of what currently passes as Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr. (Pezizales: Helvellaceae). The material comprised a considerable part of the Finnish collections of G. esculenta and some from outside Finland. Three types of specimens, obviously representing different races or species, could be distinguished on the basis of the spore characters. One of these types apparently corresponds to the true G. esculenta, another to G. splendida Raitv. If G. esculenta needs to be split at the species level, several old specific epithets are available. The taxon named G. splendida is reported for the first time from Finland, Soviet Karelia, and North America (Michigan).
Type material of Paxina recurvum Snyder, which was recently transferred to Gyromitra Fr. as G. recurva (Snyder) Harmaja, was examined. The apothecium shape and spore characters give this species a somewhat isolated position in the genus; it is best assigned to subg. Discina (Fr.) Harmaja. G. recurva is known only from a few localities in western North America.
Abstract: The paper treats the taxonomy and distribution of two very closely related species in sect. Acetabulum Diss., Helvella costifera Nannf. s. str. and H. hyperborea Harmaja (Pezizales). H. hyperborea has generally darker pigmentation and less prominent ribs on the cup exterior and it occurs in late summer and autumn, usually in completely natural habitats, in boreal and alpine areas of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland. H. costifera mainly fruits in summer, and occurs in man-influenced sites, preferring lower latitudes and altitudes.
Descriptions are given of the most important characters distinguishing four species in sect. Leucomelaenae Diss., H. leucomelaena (Pers.) Nannf., H. confusa Harmaja, H. pedunculata Harmaja and H. oblongispora Harmaja. H. pedunculata is reported from Finland and Norway, and H. oblongispora from Sweden, Norway, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Austria.
The new species Helvella ulvinenii Harmaja (sect. Acetabulum) is described from Finnish Lapland. The first record of H. dryadophila Harmaja from Finland and two new localities for Norway are reported. Acetabula murina Zeller, described from Oregon, is found to be a younger synonym of H. solitario Karst. (H. queletii Bres.). The specific status of H. verruculosa (Sacc.) Harmaja (Peziza verruculosa Berk. & Curt.), known only from the Bering Straits (U.S.S.R.), is substantiated.
Abstract: A new coelomycete, Pseudodiplodia cenangiicola Nevodovsky ex Minter, on ascocarps of Cenangium ferruginosum Fr. ex Fr. (a fungus inhabiting pine twigs) is described from Krasnoyarsk, Siberia.
Abstract: An attempt is made to clarify the nomenclature of Cystoderma jasonis (Cooke & Massee) Harmaja (C. amianthinum (Fr.) Konr. & Maubl. var. longisporum Kühn.) and the species is compared with the closely related C. amianthinum. It has cyanophilic spore and basidium walls and binucleate spores, and is common in Finland. C. amianthinum was found to have dextrinoid and cyanophilic sclerobasidia. Cystoderma lilacipes Harmaja (C. ‘longisporum (Kühn .) Heinem. & Thoen’ var. purpurascens Heinem. & Thoen, nom. inval.) is compared with the closely related C. jasonis. Hitherto the species has been known from one Belgian locality only; now 12 localities are reported from Finland. Cystoderma tuomikoskii Harmaja and Cystoderma intermedium Harmaja, two new species closely related to C. fallax Smith & Sing., are described on the basis of Finnish material. Cystoderma terreii (Berk. & Broome) Harmaja is regarded as the legitimate name for C. cinnabarinum (Seer.) Konr. & Maubl. The author agrees that the genus Cystoderma Fayod should be placed in the family Tricholomataceae. Some author citations are corrected.
Abstract: The author discusses the type materials of Clitocybe Arnoldi Boud., C. brevipes Bigelow, C. griseifolia Murr., C. harperi Murr., C. incomis (Karst.) Orton (Collybia incomis Karst.), and C. piperata A. H. Smith. Three first-named are found to be synonymous with other species, C. harperi is a species of Rhodocybe, C. incomis is excluded from Clitocybe, and the new combination Lyophyllum piperatum (A.H. Smith) Harmaja is made. An undescribed species that is closely related to R. harperi is reported, and some connections are noted between the tribe Lyophylleae of the family Tricholomataceae and the genus Rhodocybe.
Abstract: Geastrum nanum Pers. was found in 1972 in Björkör Nature Reserve in Åland, SW Finland. This is the first find of G. nanum from Finland, since an earlier record of the species was based on a misidentification. A description is given of the four gastrocarps from Björkör. The locality, a dry, stony meadow grazed by sheep, has a rather poor and common vascular plant flora. The total distribution of G. nanum is described.