Author Archives: Petri

Comparative analysis on datasets of myxomycetes associated with boreal, temperate and tropical regions of North America

Authors: Rojas, Carlos & Stephenson, Steven L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 190-200.
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Key words: biogeography, biomes, datasets, macroecology, modelling, slime molds

Abstract: Datasets from boreal (Denali National Park, United States), temperate (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States) and tropical (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) regions of North America were subjected to analysis. The complete dataset, composed primarily of field data, consisted of 3558 records, with 46% temperate, 29% boreal and 23% tropical. A total of 208 species were recorded for the three regions, with 69% temperate, 49% boreal and 40% tropical. A high significant correlation between the number of records and the number of species (r2=0.99, P=0.001) suggested that the latter was a function of the former, independent of location. However, this relationship was stable at low survey efforts, as it was observed in a model obtained with 25 independent datasets from the northern hemisphere of the Americas. Diversity values, calculated with the Shannon Index, ranged from 3.4 to 4.0 and were different for all pairwise combinations (all cases P<0.05) of the three datasets, but when calculated with the Simpson Index they were not different for the combination of temperate and boreal datasets. At the species level, the smallest value (0.38) for coefficient of community was observed for the boreal-tropical pair and highest (0.56) for the temperate-tropical pair. The taxonomic diversity indices were 2.68 and 2.83 for the boreal and tropical datasets, but 3.76 for the temperate dataset. The latter may be an indication of higher fruiting propensity in temperate regions rather than an indication of intraspecific diversity, an idea that deserves further examination. The boreal dataset had the highest number of unique genera (7), followed by the temperate (6) and the tropical (2) datasets. However, the temperate dataset showed the highest number of unique species (57), followed by the boreal (37) and tropical (26) datasets. When analyzed in a comparative context, standard experiments with similar field efforts and techniques are still required to document patterns of reproductive occurrence of myxomycetes in different regions of the world. For macroecological purposes, all regions represented by the datasets analyzed herein still remain understudied.

An annotated checklist slime molds (Myxomycetes = Myxogastrea) of western Kazakhstan

Authors: Zemlyanskaya, Inna & Novozhilov, Yuri & Schnittler, Martin
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 168-189.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, arid regions, biodiversity, steppe, desert, slime molds, species inventory, Myxogastria, Kazakhstan

Abstract: Winter-cold arid regions of western Kazakhstan were surveyed for myxomycetes for a period of 20 years. A total of 3228 records belonging to 111 species from 31 genera and 10 families are provided in an annotated checklist. The checklist contains data on the localities, habitats, substrates, methods of collection and voucher numbers of specimens deposited in the mycological herbarium (LE) of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Additionally the bibliographic references of the myxomycete species findings in the study area are given. Due to the very arid climate of the region, 2911 specimens (ca. 90%) were obtained from 1653 moist chamber cultures prepared with samples taken from bark of living plants, litter and the weathered dung of herbivorous animals. Only 317 specimens of myxomycetes were collected directly in the field, mostly in woody artificial plantations. The lowest species diversity was observed in habitats with halophytic vegetation, where on average only 1–2 species were recorded per moist chamber culture. Only Perichaena depressa and P. liceoides were common under such conditions. The highest diversity of myxomycetes was observed in the intrazonal woody communities of the steppe zone, which are usually associated with river valleys and artificial woody plantations. In these habitats lignicolous species occurred: Amaurochaete atra, Arcyria obvelata, Cribraria cancellata, Lamproderma scintillans, Lycogala epidendrum, Metatrichia vesparia, Oligonema flavidum, Stemonitis axifera, S. fusca, S. herbatica, S.pallida, Symphytocarpus confluens, and Trichia contorta. However, the apparently most common species of myxomycetes in the studied area are associated with litter or bark: Badhamia foliicola, B. spinispora, Didymium anellus, D. difforme, D. trachysporum, Echinostelium colliculosum, Fuligo cinerea, Licea denudescens, L. nannengae, L. parasitica, Macbrideola oblonga, Pericaena depressa, P. corticalis, P. liceoides, P. vermicularis, Physarum cinereum, and Ph. pseudonotabile. Among substrate types, species diversity and richness decrease from wood over ground litter to bark, and dung of herbivorous animals. Shannon diversity and species richness reached maximum values in the intrazonal and artificial woody communities, whereas treeless sagebrush desert and dry steppe communities and, halophytic vegetation had the most depauperate yet most specific myxomycete assemblages. Assemblages associated with these vegetation types displayed a high level of similarity to those of myxomycete assemblages from other arid regions of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. In contrast, assemblages of the artificial woody plantations in the study region displayed a high level of similarity to those of boreal forest regions of Siberia for which data exist, but differed from the assemblages documented from treeless desert and steppe regions of Eurasia.

Myxomycetes of Coron Island and additions to the Myxomycetes of Palawan group of islands in the Philippines

Authors: Macabago, Sittie Aisha B. & dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E. & Stephenson, Steven L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 157–167.
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Key words: karst forest, slime molds, Huxley’s line, biodiversity, insular, limestone forest

Abstract: The main objective of the research reported herein is to present an annotated checklist generated from the first survey of myxomycetes in the limestone forests of Coron Island in the province of Palawan, Philippines. A total of 25 morphotaxa were identified from specimens isolated in the laboratory from samples of ground leaf litter, twigs, and vines (lianas) collected from five sites along the coasts and inland forests of Coron Island. Among the identified taxa one (Badhamia macrocarpa) was a new record for the country, while another was temporarily assigned to the genus Perichaena (Trichiida: Trichiidae) until the proper classification of the specimen could be determined. In addition, the present study brings the updated total number of records of myxomycetes for the Palawan group of islands to 56 morphospecies.

New myxomycete records from the Canary Islands

Authors: López-Villalba, Ángela & Moreno, Gabriel
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 145–156.
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Key words: Canary Islands, Myxomycetes, new records, SEM

Abstract: The volcanic Canary Islands constitute a biodiversity hotspot. Although our knowledge of the native flora and fauna species is extensive, the myxobiota of these islands is not so well-known. For this reason, we provide herein eight new records for the checklist of Canarian myxomycetes with accurate descriptions and macro- and microphotographs. The specimens were collected in Tenerife during the months of November and December 1987. All of them are new to the Canary Islands.

Contributions to the knowledge of aphyllophoroid and heterobasidioid funga (Basidiomycota) in Finland

Authors: Kunttu, Panu & Helo, Teppo & Kulju, Matti & Julkunen, Jari & Kotiranta, Heikki
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 118-143.
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Key words: Aphyllophorales, biogeography, corticioids, polypores, wood-associated fungi

Abstact: We contribute to the knowledge on the occurrences and distributions of both aphyllophoroid and heterobasidioid fungi in Finland. We present four species new to Finland, i.e. Helicogloea sebacea, Phanerochaete cremeo-ochracea, Steccherinum cremeoalbum, and Uncobasidium luteolum, as well as 46 new records (locations) of 34 rare or rarely collected species. Additionally, we report on 40 species considered new to a certain subzone of the boreal forest vegetation zone in Finland. These records contain notes on their substrata, and the ecology and distribution of nationally new species are briefly discussed.

Diversity of boreal small species of Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia with Salix

Authors: Kokkonen, Katri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 60-117.
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Key words: Taxonomy, Molecular systematics, Biogeography, Fennoscandia, Agaricales

Abstract: This work presents the genetic and morphological diversity of small Cortinarius subgenus Telamonia species found from moist Salix thickets in Finland. The boreal fungi were compared with several type and other specimens from the alpine zone or similar habitats from the temperate zone. The boreal and alpine zones had many common species: nearly all boreal species grew in the alpine zone with dwarf Salix. The species often had wide distributions, extending to North America. The genetic analyses consisted of ITS and RPB2 sequences. Both genetic and morphological variation was high. The species formed complexes, where the boundaries among species were often obscure. Very close sibling species were delimited based on differences at the same sites. Twenty-three boreal species were recognized. Four of them are described here as new: C. paulus and C. paululus as sibling species to C. pauperculus J.Favre, C. rusticelloides as a sibling species to C. rusticellus J.Favre, and C. vienoi as a sibling species to C. perzonatus Reumaux. Cortinarius sagarum, a sibling species to C. comatus J.Favre and C. vulpicolor M.M.Moser & McKnight, is described as new from arctic-alpine zones.

Supplementary Material

Table1. Accession numbers and origins of the specimens sequenced in the study.
Alignment of ITS sequences.
Alignment of RPB2 sequences.

Inocybe woglindeana, a new species of the genus Inocybe, thriving in exposed habitats with calcareous sandy soil

Authors: Bandini, Ditte & Vauras, Jukka & Weholt, Øyvind & Oertel, Bernd & Eberhardt, Ursula
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 41-59.
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Key words: Agaricales, Inocybaceae, Inocybe, Taxonomy, Type studies, Europe, Molecular systematics, ITS, LSU

Abstract: We describe a smooth-spored species of Inocybe, the basidiomes of which have been encountered growing with Salix in exposed habitats, often with calcareous sandy soils in Germany and Fennoscandia. The species is presented with a detailed description, photographs and microdrawings. Its relationship to similar taxa growing in the same environments is illustrated with ITS and LSU data. Morphologically the species would be keyed out as a member of I. sect. Tardae. For comparison, the types of somewhat similar species occurring in similar habitats as I. woglindeana, i.e. I. subpelargonium, I. rufuloides, I. inodora, I. neorufula and I. variispora, were examined morphologically; from the latter ITS and mtSSU V6 data were obtained. Molecular data supported a very close relationship between I. woglindeana and I. variispora. The two species are also morphologically similar, but differ in colour of pileus, in shape and details of hymenial cystidia, and also in their host and habitat. None of the other species, represented by our own collections or sequences from the public domain, are phylogenetically closely related to I. woglindeana.

First records of Inocybe melleiconica and I. pararubens for Northern Europe with a new variety from the alpine zone of the Scandinavian mountains

Authors: Vauras, Jukka & Larsson, Ellen
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 29-40.
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Key words: Inocybe, Agaricales, taxonomy, arctic-alpine mycology, fungal diversity

Abstract: Inocybe melleiconica and I. pararubens are reported as new for Northern Europe, from the alpine zone of Scandinavia. I. melleiconica is rather common on rich and more calcareous soils and usually associated with Salix herbacea. I. pararubens seems to be a rather rare species in the alpine zone and only encountered on calcareous soils on wet ground, associated with Salix reticulata and S. herbacea. We describe I. pararubens var. padjelantae to accommodate the alpine collections of I. pararubens. This taxon is also identified from Canada, arctic tundra of Keewatin. I. pararubens var. pararubens is recorded as new for Sweden, where it was found associated with Tilia cordata, on rich calcareous soil on the west coast of the country. I. castaneicolor is identified as a later synonym of I. pararubens. The spores of the alpine collections of both species treated here were found to be clearly broader than the ones given in the original descriptions.

Effect of wood residues on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum

Authors: Cortina-Escribano, Marta & Veteli, Pyry & Linnakoski, Riikka & Miina, Jari & Vanhanen, Henri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 16-28.
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Key words: bioconversion, Ganoderma lucidum, lignocellulosic biomass, mushroom cultivation, mycelial growth, mycelial morphology, wood residues

Abstract: Sawmill industries generate considerable amounts of low value wood residues. Fungal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass allows the conversion of wood residues into valuable products. The selection of the most suitable fungal strains and media are essential to optimise the bioconversion of wood residues and serves as a basis for mushroom cultivation industries. The aim of this study was to find the best combinations of Ganoderma lucidum strains and substrate media to optimise the cultivation of the fungus. Mycelial growth and culture characteristics of G. lucidum isolated from Betula pubescens and Picea abies in Finland were tested on agar media containing different wood residues. These included Betula sp., Populus tremula, Larix sp., Pinus sylvestris, Alnus incana and P. abies sawdust, which were added to malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and water agar. The results showed significant differences in the mycelial growth between all interaction levels (agar media, wood species and fungal strain). The addition of malt extract significantly enhanced the growth of the fungus in comparison to potato dextrose or water agar. The wood sawdust most suitable for mycelial growth was Betula sp., followed by P. tremula. Strains originally isolated from P. abies also presented higher mycelial growth in media with hardwood sawdust. These findings demonstrate that Betula sp. and P. tremula sawdust stimulate the growth of G. lucidum. Thus, it is possible to cultivate the fungus on a variety of wood residues from sawmill industries.

First Asian record of Comatricha anomala, a rare epiphytic corticolous myxomycete

Authors: Vlasenko, Anastasia & Vlasenko, Vyacheslav
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 10-15.
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Key words: Stemonitidales, epiphytic myxomycetes, moist chamber culture, SEM, new records

Abstract: The Corticolous Myxomycetes comprise a group of slime-moulds that grow primarily on the bark of living trees. This work presents the first records of Comatricha anomala in Asia with data on its localities, habitat, and distribution. Comatricha species commonly inhabit bark folds of living trees, occasionally other substrates. Of the approximately 36 species in the genus, 13 have been recorded in Asia. Comatricha anomala was previously known only from Europe, North America and Cuba. Comatricha anomala were isolated using the moist-chamber method, which is a highly efficient means to identify hidden diversity of myxomycetes. Sporocarps of C. anomala were found in Petri dishes while examining a bark obtained from living Pinus sylvestris from the Novosibirsk Region. C. anomala differs from other species of Comatricha in its unique spore ornamentation. Scanning electron microscopy necessary to characterize the ornamentation of the surface of the spores in the Comatricha genus. The work includes a revised description of C. anomala with a scanning electron micrograph study of the spore ornamentation.