Category Archives: Volume 33 1993

The composition and structure of macrofungus communities in boreal upland type forests and peatlands in North Karelia, Finland

Authors: Salo, Kauko
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 33 (1993), Issue 2, pages 61-99.
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Key words: Basidiomycotina, Ascomycotina, macrofungus community, ecological group, mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungus, composition, structure, diversity, ordination, classification, boreal upland type forest, peatland, Finland

Abstract:  As part of the 7th Finnish National Forest Inventory (7NFI), a network of permanent sample plots was established in North Karelia, Finland in 1980. All basidiocarps of macrofungi on each sample plot, 100 sq.m in size, were collected, counted, weighed and identified in 1981-1984. The sample plots represent nutrient-poor mineral soil and peatland site types with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) (sometimes with downy birch, Betula pubescens, on mesic mineral soils and mires) as the dominant tree species. The mires include virgin, recently drained, transitional and old peatland drainage sites. The commercial forests have undergone intensive logging (clear felling and thinning) in the past few years, and some mires have been ditched and fertilized.
Altogether 316 species of fungi were determined: 232 species of macro fungi (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales) representing 61 genera, 73.4% of all mycoflora; 49 species, representing 34 genera, of Aphyllophorales (15.5%); and other fungi incl. Ascomycotina, 35 species (11.1% ), representing 26 genera. The richest genera among the macrofungus species were Cortinarius (27 species), Mycena (19), Russula (16), Lactarius (15), Tricholoma (10), Hygrophorus (9) and Collybia (9). The 316 species of fungi that were identified were classified into three main ecological groups: mycorrhizal species according to their host tree species; saprophytic species (eight fertility groups according to what they usually acted upon); and parasites. Mesic forest site types had more versatile composition of mycorrhizal and saprophytic macrofungus species than did dryish and dry forest site types. Mycorrhizal macrofungus species accounted for more than 40% of all macrofungi in mineral soil forest and peatland site types. Drained peatland site types (especially pine bogs) had more macrofungus species than did virgin mires. TWINSPAN classification and DCA ordination were suitable in analysing the data on the macrofungi. The diversity of the macrofungi in mineral soil forest and peatland site types is discussed.

Tanzanian mushrooms and their uses 2. An edible species of Coprinus section Lanatuli

Authors: Härkönen, Marja & Saarimäki, Tiina & Mwasumbi, Leonard
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 33 (1993), Issue 1, pages 51-59.
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Key words: Africa, Coprinus, edible mushrooms, ethnomycology, sisal, Tanzania

Abstract:  Coprinus cinereus s. lat. is commonly grown in waste heaps of sisal (Agave sisalana) processing factories in Tanzania. The local people utilize the fungus as a food crop all the year round. The taxonomic status of the Tanzanian Coprinus population needs further study.

Tanzanian mushrooms and their uses 1. Russula

Authors: Härkönen, Marja & Buyck, Bart & Saarimäki, Tiina & Mwasumbi, Leonard
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 33 (1993), Issue 1, pages 11-50.
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Key words: Africa, Agaricales, ethnomycology, Russula, Tanzania, taxonomy

Abstract:  A brief introduction of the project on Tanzanian edible mushroom is given along with the main features of the soil and vegetation of the collecting sites. The importance of Russulaceae in Africa and the collected Russula species are discussed. Thirty-six specimens of Russula were collected between 1989-1991, and of this material, 21 species of Russula were identified. Nineteen species are reported from Tanzania for the first time. R. tenuithrix Buyck sp. nov., R. tanzaniae Buyck sp. nov., R. hiemisilvae Buyck sp. nov., R. sublaevis (Buyck) Buyck stat. nov. and nine other species were found in woodlands, R. usambarae Buyck sp. nov., R. acriannulata Buyck sp. nov. and five other Russula in lower montane forest. One species has been introduced in Pinus plantations. Along with a key to the collected Russula species, their systematic position, distribution and possible host trees are discussed and compared with earlier data from Tanzania and other African countries. A discussion on the edibility of Russula is also included.

Suillus grevillei and S. clintonianus (Gomphidiaceae), two boletoid fungi associated with Larix

Authors: Korhonen, Mauri & Hyvönen, Jaakko & Ahti, Teuvo
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 33 (1993), Issue 1, pages 1-9.
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Key words: Boletes, Finland, Larix, taxonomy

Abstract: Suillus clintonianus (Peck) Kuntze, earlier regarded as a dark red-brown form of S. grevillei (Klotzsch: Fr.) Singer, is shown to possess other distinctive morphological characters as well, and to have a wide distribution in Eurasia and North America. It is here proposed as a separate species. Both S. grevillei and S. clintonianus are ectomycorrhizal fungi of Larix, and often grow together, but the total distributions are different. S. grevillei f. badius (Singer) Singer is included in S. clintonianus.