Abstract: The ecology and distribution of Inocybe bongardii (Weinm .) Quél. , I. leucoblema Kühn., I. perlata (Cooke) Sacc., and I. terrigena (Fr.) Kuyp. are treated on the basis of Finnish material. Though variable in colours, most of the material of I. perlata was found to fit excellently with Cooke’s original concept. A closer presentation is given of a study area in SW Finland where the calcareous bedrock and emissions from a limestone-processing factory have strongly affected the mycoflora. Heavy fall-out of chalk dust induces production of extremely large fruit bodies in Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. Pluteus exiguus (Pat.) Sacc. and Inocybe amblyspora Kühn. are reported as new to Finland. In addition, many rare species are reported, whose occurrence is in most cases attributable to the calcareous bedrock and calcium fall-out, e.g. Chamaemyces fracidus (Fr.) Dank, Peziza succosa Berk. and Helvella oblongispora Harmaja.
Abstract: The Finnish distribution is mapped for five polypore species. Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat. has rare occurrences almost throughout the country, mainly on Larix sibirica and Pinus sylvestris. Fistulina hepatica Schaeff.: Fr. is strictly Hemiboreal, growing on Quercus robur and (one record) Castanea sativa. Ganoderma lipsiense (Batsch) Atk. (G. applanatum) is a polyphagous saproparasite, common in the Hemiboreal and Southern boreal zones and rarer in the Middle boreal zone. Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. favours large stumps of Alnus glutinosa and has rare occurrences in the Hemiboreal and Southern boreal zones only. Ischnoderma benzoinum (Wahl.) Karst. is distributed over the whole of Finland, but is common only in the south. It grows mostly on Picea abies, less often on Pinus sylvestris, and exceptionally on a few other hosts. None of these fungi cause notable economic losses as decaying agents.
Abstract: The amount and role of Hendersonia acicola Tub. in the epidemic caused by Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) v. Hohn. was followed on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland. From year to year H. acicola increased on needles primarily infected by L. sulcigena up to the end of the Lophodermella epidemic. Hendersonia was first abundant in the lower crown, while the upper parts were nearly free of it. The increase of H. acicola prevented L. sulcigena from producing ascocarps and led to the recovery of the trees and stands. L. sulcigena could fruit only in those needles which were free of H. acicola in the autumn. The autumnal presence of H. acicola in the needles led to a natural control of the pathogen. Experiments with H. acicola showed that it is possible to develop biological control against L. sulcigena.
Abstract: The following new species of the Pezizales (Ascomycetes) are described: Gyromitra accumbens Harmaja (type from Switzerland), Gyromitra columbiana Harmaja (type from British Columbia), Gyromitra mcknighlii Harmaja (type from Yugoslavia), Leucoscypha ovilloides Harmaja (type from Finland), Peziza alcidis Harmaja (type from Finland}, Peziza kallioi Harmaja (type from Finland}, Peziza lohjaensis Harmaja (type from Finland), Peziza perparva Harmaja (type from Finland), Pseudombrophila maekinenii Harmaja (type from Finland), and Pseudombrophila obliquerimosa Harmaja (type from Finland). The following new combinations are made: Gyromitra fluciuans (Nyl.) Harmaja, Gyromitra geogenius (Donad.) Harmaja, Gyromitra microspora (Donad. & Boz.) Harmaja, Gyromitra parvispora (Trigaux) Harmaja, Otidea integra (Bres.) Harmaja, and Otidea unicisa (Peck) Harmaja. The nomenclature and typification of some species of Gyromitra Fr. are clarified. Otidea (Pers.) Bon. is amended so as to include rough-spored species. Gyromitra warnei (Peck) Harmaja is reported as new to Finland and Otidea integra as new to Sweden.
Abstract: The polypores of the Helsinki municipal area in South Finland were studied with regard to their microdistributions, host relationships, abundances and economic importance. Altogether 120 species are reported. Five site types were defined, ranging from urban to rural environments: parks proper, tree rows, park forests, forests proper and idle land areas. Distinct differences were found in the species compositions of urban environments (parks proper and tree rows), as compared with more natural wooded areas (park forests and forests proper). Polypores which prefer urban growth sites (the centric species) are southern in Finland (Fistulina hepatica Schaeff. : Fr., Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr., Spongipellis spumeus (Sow.: Fr.) Pat.) or have a scattered general distribution (Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat., Polyporus squamosus Huds.: Fr., Rigidoporus populinus (Schum.: Fr.) Pouz.). Species preferring rural environments (peripheral) are mostly the basic, common forest species of southern and central Finland. A third group of polypores (indifferent) occurs evenly in all environmental types, but often varies in pathological properties between areas: for instance, Bjerkandera adusta (Willd .: Fr.) Karst., Ganoderma lipsiense (Batsch) Atk. (G. applanatum) and Fomitiporia punctata (Karst.) Murr. are more readily parasitic when growing in the inner city. The mechanisms and reasons for the fungal infections in park trees are discussed, and some commoner polypores causing rot in park trees are studied more closely. The most harmful park-tree decaying polypores in Helsinki are Ganoderma lipsiense, Bjerkandera adusta, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. , Laetiporus sulphureus, Ochroporus igniarius (L.: Fr.) Schroet., Polyporus squamosus and Rigidoporus populinus.
The Helsinki municipal area is divided into 1-km2 squares and the distributions of 30 representative species are mapped accordingly. Some typical parks, forests and polypores are illustrated.
The delimitation and species of the genus Oligoporus are discussed. The following polypores are reported as new to Finland: Oligoporus cerifluus (Berk. & Curt.) Gilbertson & Ryv., Polyporus badius (Pers.) Schw. and Schizopora radula (Pers.: Fr.) Hallenb. The presence of Oligoporus balsameus (Peck) Gilbertson & Ryv. in Finland is confirmed.