Abstract: The classical differences between Otidea (Pers.) Bon. and Tarzetta (Cooke) Lamb. (Pustulana auct.) are evpluated and shown to be of slight taxonomic value. The structure of the excipulum is found to be identical in the two genera. On the other hand, they are clearly differentiated by certain sporal and cytological characters, an essential part of which are presented for the first time. The Otidea and Tarzetta spores belong to different types on the basis of the existence versus absence of a cyanophilic perispore-periplasm coating in mature spores. Staining with cotton blue proved to be very helpful in the study. It is concluded that the two genera should be kept separate, as has generally been done up till now, although on different and uncertain grounds.
Abstract: A new synnematous hyphomycete, Mycosylva reticulata Samson & Hintikka sp. nov. is described. It has been isolated from pellets of small rodents in northern Finland and differs from the type culture of M. clarkii Tulloch mainly by the reticulate ornamentations of the conidia, the presence of ramoconidia and the olive green colour of the synnematal heads. Mycosylva clarkii and M. reticulata are psychrophilic, showing optimal growth at l5 °C. The relationship of the genus Alycosylva to Myceliophthora, Hormoconis, Pycnostysanus and Heydenia is discussed.
Abstract: The author describes two new species of Lepista (Fr.) W. G. Smith sensu Harmaja 1974 (Agaricales). Lepista fasciculata Harmaja differs from the apparently closely related L. subalpina (Big. & Smith) Harmaja mainly through its paler, non-hygrophanous pileus and somewhat larger spores. Lepista singeri Harmaja differs from the closely related L. (Clitocybe) nebularis (Fr.) Harmaja in the tricholomoid habit with sinuate gill -attachment, much paler colour of the pileus without grey tinges, and a larger hilar appendix of the spore. From L. irina (Fr.) Bigelow it differs above all through the perfectly smooth spores under the light microscope, the different odour, and probably also through a yellowish spore colour. L. singeri appears to be the » Tricholoma irinum with smooth not reddish spores» of some authors. New and more accurate details of the characters of this species are given. The new subgenus Lepista subg. Laevispora Harmaja is established to accommodate the two species, L. nebulari (as the type) and L. singeri, which have all their spores completely smooth under the light microscope, a yellow spore colour (not quite certain in L. singeri), and a characteristic common odour. In subg. Lepista all the spores are warted (however, in one species a part of even mature spores are smooth), the spore deposit is reddish, and the odours are different.
Abstract: The new combination Pseudoclitocybe atra (Vel.) Harmaja (Agaricales) is made, and the species is described. The species is distinguished through the presence of distinct, fairly abundant dermatocystidia, very simple in structure, which are responsible for the characteristic satiny lusrte of the moist pileus surface, further through the pure dark brown colours (paler in the dried condition) of the fruit body without any greyish tint, the mat surface of the dried pileus, and the fairly long spores. Also, certain other though minor differences from the other species of uhe genus seem to exist. All the specimeliS were collected in human-influenced sites. in the litter of grasses mixed with mull. Apart from the dermatocystidia, several sporal and macrochemical characters are reported for the first time in the genus. The species is new for Finland and Western Germany.
Abstract: The mature spores of the Pezizales, both those with ornamentations and those with a completely smooth surface, can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence versus absence of cyanophilic substance outside the true spore wall. When present this substance, whether smooth or ornamented, perhaps always forms a continuous sheath surrounding the spore. A temporary cyanophilic sheath surrounds the immature spores of many species of the order, vanishing completely towards spore maturity. In preliminary observations on 31 genera of the order, three spore types could be distinguished in the species studied: 1) the Morchella type (or perisporeless type), 2) the Otidea type (or temporarily perisporous type) and 3) the Peziza type (or persistently perisporous type). These spore types will probably be most useful at the generic level in the taxonomy of the Pezizales, but possibly also at the family level. Some new observations of certain other taxonomically interesting characters are also given; e.g. the gaseous de Bary bubbles inside the spores (in heated cotton blue) are reported to be much more frequent in the Pezizales than has hitherto been known.
Abstract: Clitocybe piperata A. H. Smith (Agaricales) was observed to possess the diagnostic features of the genus Rhodocybe Maire, and be a valid species. The new name Rhodocybe smithii is proposed for it. The diagnostic specific oharacters of R. smithii are shortly discussed. Some spore features, previously not reported in Rhodocybe, are also mentioned. The new combination Cystoderma adnatifolium (Peck) Harmaja is made, the characters. of the species are discussed, and it is reported as new for Europe from Finland and the USSR.
Abstract: The author describes the new species Tarzetta pusilla Harmaja (Pezizales) and makes the new combination Tarzetta spurcata (Pers. ) Harmaja as he considers Peziza spurcata Pers. distinct from T. catinus (Pers.) Korf & Rogers. The apparently only existing original specimen of P. spurcata is nominated as the neotype. The two Tarzetta species treated in the paper differ from the rest of the species of the genus through their entangled paraphyses, which possess branches and proliferations, especially at the tips which are mostly enlarged and profusely notched with branchlets, often to such a degree that they are in fact deformed. T. pusilla, T. spurcata and T. catinus differ from each other on the basis of characters of of the apothecium, spores, paraphyses. and anatomy. Differences between these three species may also lie in the habitat ecology and distribution. T. spurcata is reported from Finland for the first time, and the seven specimens representing this species among the Finnish Tarzetta material are listed, all the collecting localities lying in the southernmost part of the country.
Abstract: Clitocybe (Fr.) Staude subg. Clitocybe sect. Bulluliferae (Sing.) Harmaja (Agaricales) is considered to deviate so much from the rest of the genus Clilocybe that a new genus, Singerella Harmaja, with Agaricus hydrogrammus Fr. as the type, is proposed for this single valid species. of the section. The most important distinguishing character of the section Bulluliferae is the presence of peculiar vesicles in the hyphae of the epicutis (and mostly also in those of the cortex of the stipe), here called »intercalary dermatochrysocystidia», which are lacking in the other species of Clitocybe, and are probably also absent from the remainder of the Agaricales. They somewhat resemble the normal terminal chrysocystidia present in certain dark-spored gooera. The second distinctive character is in the spores, some of which possess confluent bases. The odour of the species is almost unique in Clitocybe. Certain characters not reported before, such as responses to cotton blue of certain parts of the fruit body of the species in question, are given. The synonymy of A. hydrogrammus is given, two new synonyms of the species being included, resulting to the expansion of the area of this species to the southern hemisphere. One new combination becomes necessary: Singerella hydrogramma (Fr.) Harmaja.
Abstract: The author considers especially the sporal, anatomical and cytological characters of the genera Karstenella Harmaja and Pseudorhizina Jach. to warrant the establishment of a new mono typic family for each: Karstenelloceae Harmaja and Pseudorhizinaceae Harmaja. Certain characters relevant to the family level taxonomy have been observed by the author in both genera. Features apparently diagnostic of the family Karstenellaceae are the p resence of two nuclei in the spores, the lack of a cyanophilic perispore in all stages of spore development, the simple structure of the excipulum which is exclusively composed of textura intricata, and the subicular characters. The genera of the Pezizales with tetranucleate spores are considered to form three different families on the basis of both sporal and anatomical differences: Helvellaceae Dum., Pseudorhizinaceae and Rhizinaceae Bon. The lack of a cyanophilic perispore in the mature spores and the simple structure and thick-walled hyphae of the excipulum are important distinguishing features of the family Pseudorhizinaceae. Comparisons are given between Pseudorhizinaceae and the two other families.
Abstract: The two species Otidea cantharella (Fr.) Sacc. and O. phlebophora (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. are shown to possess in common some characters which differentiate them from the other pecies of Otidea, including the type of the genus, O. onotica (Fr. ) Fuck. The most important differences relate to the ectal excipulum, which in the two species is composed of only one layer, viz. textura prismatic a with rather small cells and clavate end cells (corresponding exactly to the Helvella type of excipulum), and which possesses no cyanophilic intercellular matter. These species also display a bright yellow colour, especially externally, in their fresh apothecia, the basal parts of which are ribbed, either having branching and anastomosing ribs and pits or are less conspicuously rugose-venose and pitted, features which are also lacking in the rest of Otidea. The two species may possibly also differ by the general features of their ecology and distribution from the bulk of Otidea. The differences observed ape considered so significant that the new genus Flavoscypha Harmaja is established for the two species, Peziza phlebophora Berk. & Br. being designated as the type. The specific differences of the two closely related Flavoscypha species are also described. Both species have recently each been collected once in SW Finland, and are here reported as new to this country. Two new oombinations are made: Flavoscypha cantharella (Fr.) Harmaja and Flavoscypha phlebophora (Berk. & Br.) Harmaja.