Abstract: The application of immunocytochemical and immunobiochemical research methods to fungi has showed that microtubules and microfilaments are common structural components in the hyphae. In eukaryotic organisms other than fungi, microtubules and microfilaments are known to be involved in a variety of motile intracellular processes, such as directed movement of cell organelles, and in mitosis. In long fungal cells with apical extension, the microtubules and microfilaments may serve as pathways and guiding elements for the movement of nuclei and mitochondria towards the apex and also for transport of material from the site of synthesis to the site of secretion at the hyphal apex. The cytoskeletal elements, especially microtubules, may also play an integral role in the reciprocal exchange and migration of nuclei associated with the sexual reproduction in higher fungi. Unlike other cell organelles, microtubules and microfilaments respond to extra- and intracellular changes by assembly and disassembly cycles, which may be reflected in the growth and morphology of the hyphae. This makes microtubules and microfilaments attractive candidates through which the regulation of growth and morphogenesis in fungal hyphae may take place.