The composition and structure of macrofungus communities in boreal upland type forests and peatlands in North Karelia, Finland

Authors: Salo, Kauko
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 33 (1993), Issue 2, pages 61-99.
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Key words: Basidiomycotina, Ascomycotina, macrofungus community, ecological group, mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungus, composition, structure, diversity, ordination, classification, boreal upland type forest, peatland, Finland

Abstract:  As part of the 7th Finnish National Forest Inventory (7NFI), a network of permanent sample plots was established in North Karelia, Finland in 1980. All basidiocarps of macrofungi on each sample plot, 100 sq.m in size, were collected, counted, weighed and identified in 1981-1984. The sample plots represent nutrient-poor mineral soil and peatland site types with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) (sometimes with downy birch, Betula pubescens, on mesic mineral soils and mires) as the dominant tree species. The mires include virgin, recently drained, transitional and old peatland drainage sites. The commercial forests have undergone intensive logging (clear felling and thinning) in the past few years, and some mires have been ditched and fertilized.
Altogether 316 species of fungi were determined: 232 species of macro fungi (Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales) representing 61 genera, 73.4% of all mycoflora; 49 species, representing 34 genera, of Aphyllophorales (15.5%); and other fungi incl. Ascomycotina, 35 species (11.1% ), representing 26 genera. The richest genera among the macrofungus species were Cortinarius (27 species), Mycena (19), Russula (16), Lactarius (15), Tricholoma (10), Hygrophorus (9) and Collybia (9). The 316 species of fungi that were identified were classified into three main ecological groups: mycorrhizal species according to their host tree species; saprophytic species (eight fertility groups according to what they usually acted upon); and parasites. Mesic forest site types had more versatile composition of mycorrhizal and saprophytic macrofungus species than did dryish and dry forest site types. Mycorrhizal macrofungus species accounted for more than 40% of all macrofungi in mineral soil forest and peatland site types. Drained peatland site types (especially pine bogs) had more macrofungus species than did virgin mires. TWINSPAN classification and DCA ordination were suitable in analysing the data on the macrofungi. The diversity of the macrofungi in mineral soil forest and peatland site types is discussed.