Authors: Cortina-Escribano, Marta & Veteli, Pyry & Linnakoski, Riikka & Miina, Jari & Vanhanen, Henri
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 16-28.
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Key words: bioconversion, Ganoderma lucidum, lignocellulosic biomass, mushroom cultivation, mycelial growth, mycelial morphology, wood residues
Abstract: Sawmill industries generate considerable amounts of low value wood residues. Fungal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass allows the conversion of wood residues into valuable products. The selection of the most suitable fungal strains and media are essential to optimise the bioconversion of wood residues and serves as a basis for mushroom cultivation industries. The aim of this study was to find the best combinations of Ganoderma lucidum strains and substrate media to optimise the cultivation of the fungus. Mycelial growth and culture characteristics of G. lucidum isolated from Betula pubescens and Picea abies in Finland were tested on agar media containing different wood residues. These included Betula sp., Populus tremula, Larix sp., Pinus sylvestris, Alnus incana and P. abies sawdust, which were added to malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar and water agar. The results showed significant differences in the mycelial growth between all interaction levels (agar media, wood species and fungal strain). The addition of malt extract significantly enhanced the growth of the fungus in comparison to potato dextrose or water agar. The wood sawdust most suitable for mycelial growth was Betula sp., followed by P. tremula. Strains originally isolated from P. abies also presented higher mycelial growth in media with hardwood sawdust. These findings demonstrate that Betula sp. and P. tremula sawdust stimulate the growth of G. lucidum. Thus, it is possible to cultivate the fungus on a variety of wood residues from sawmill industries.
Authors: Vlasenko, Anastasia & Vlasenko, Vyacheslav
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 10-15.
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Key words: Stemonitidales, epiphytic myxomycetes, moist chamber culture, SEM, new records
Abstract: The Corticolous Myxomycetes comprise a group of slime-moulds that grow primarily on the bark of living trees. This work presents the first records of Comatricha anomala in Asia with data on its localities, habitat, and distribution. Comatricha species commonly inhabit bark folds of living trees, occasionally other substrates. Of the approximately 36 species in the genus, 13 have been recorded in Asia. Comatricha anomala was previously known only from Europe, North America and Cuba. Comatricha anomala were isolated using the moist-chamber method, which is a highly efficient means to identify hidden diversity of myxomycetes. Sporocarps of C. anomala were found in Petri dishes while examining a bark obtained from living Pinus sylvestris from the Novosibirsk Region. C. anomala differs from other species of Comatricha in its unique spore ornamentation. Scanning electron microscopy necessary to characterize the ornamentation of the surface of the spores in the Comatricha genus. The work includes a revised description of C. anomala with a scanning electron micrograph study of the spore ornamentation.
Authors: Larsson, Ellen & Bendiksen, Katriina
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 1, pages 1-9.
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Key words: host preference, Hygrophoraceae, molecular systematics, taxonomy, woodwaxes
Abstract: A new species, Hygrophorus betulae, associated with Betula pubescens is described from the subalpine zone of northern Finland. The molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that it is closely related to H. mesotephrus, a species described from England and associated with Fagus. In morphology H. betulae is characterized by the small glutinous basidiomata and the pale pileus with an olive-grey disc zone. The colour of the disc zone is similar to that of H. olivaceoalbus. The species seems to be rare or may be overlooked because of the small and pale appearance.