Abstract: The mature spores of the Pezizales, both those with ornamentations and those with a completely smooth surface, can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence versus absence of cyanophilic substance outside the true spore wall. When present this substance, whether smooth or ornamented, perhaps always forms a continuous sheath surrounding the spore. A temporary cyanophilic sheath surrounds the immature spores of many species of the order, vanishing completely towards spore maturity. In preliminary observations on 31 genera of the order, three spore types could be distinguished in the species studied: 1) the Morchella type (or perisporeless type), 2) the Otidea type (or temporarily perisporous type) and 3) the Peziza type (or persistently perisporous type). These spore types will probably be most useful at the generic level in the taxonomy of the Pezizales, but possibly also at the family level. Some new observations of certain other taxonomically interesting characters are also given; e.g. the gaseous de Bary bubbles inside the spores (in heated cotton blue) are reported to be much more frequent in the Pezizales than has hitherto been known.