Category Archives: Volume 58(2) 2020

Influence of cardinal directions on corticolous myxomycetes associated with Swietenia macrophylla King

Authors: Policina, Monica S. & dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 201-214.
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Key words: Angat Watershed Forest Reserve, cardinal points, plasmodial slime mold, tropical forests, tropical monsoon

Abstract: Barks of living trees serve as a microhabitat for a distinct assemblage of myxomycetes, the corticolous myxomycetes. In this study, we sampled 86 living Swietenia macrophylla trees for bark samples at four cardinal directions (North, East, South, West) to prepare 344 moist chambers. Of these, only 134 moist chambers yielded myxomycetes recorded either as fruiting bodies or plasmodia. Our study also recorded a total of 125 determinable fruiting bodies which were identified as belonging to 22 species, 11 genera, and 7 taxonomic orders and with the most number of taxa recorded in the west (17) and south (14), followed by east (12) and north (11) directions. Eleven taxa were recorded as abundant, with three taxa of Licea having the highest number of records. Comparing species composition, only four species were common in all directions. Following statistical analysis, we did not observe any significant differences between the diversity values per cardinal direction.

Comparative analysis on datasets of myxomycetes associated with boreal, temperate and tropical regions of North America

Authors: Rojas, Carlos & Stephenson, Steven L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 190-200.
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Key words: biogeography, biomes, datasets, macroecology, modelling, slime molds

Abstract: Datasets from boreal (Denali National Park, United States), temperate (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States) and tropical (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) regions of North America were subjected to analysis. The complete dataset, composed primarily of field data, consisted of 3558 records, with 46% temperate, 29% boreal and 23% tropical. A total of 208 species were recorded for the three regions, with 69% temperate, 49% boreal and 40% tropical. A high significant correlation between the number of records and the number of species (r2=0.99, P=0.001) suggested that the latter was a function of the former, independent of location. However, this relationship was stable at low survey efforts, as it was observed in a model obtained with 25 independent datasets from the northern hemisphere of the Americas. Diversity values, calculated with the Shannon Index, ranged from 3.4 to 4.0 and were different for all pairwise combinations (all cases P<0.05) of the three datasets, but when calculated with the Simpson Index they were not different for the combination of temperate and boreal datasets. At the species level, the smallest value (0.38) for coefficient of community was observed for the boreal-tropical pair and highest (0.56) for the temperate-tropical pair. The taxonomic diversity indices were 2.68 and 2.83 for the boreal and tropical datasets, but 3.76 for the temperate dataset. The latter may be an indication of higher fruiting propensity in temperate regions rather than an indication of intraspecific diversity, an idea that deserves further examination. The boreal dataset had the highest number of unique genera (7), followed by the temperate (6) and the tropical (2) datasets. However, the temperate dataset showed the highest number of unique species (57), followed by the boreal (37) and tropical (26) datasets. When analyzed in a comparative context, standard experiments with similar field efforts and techniques are still required to document patterns of reproductive occurrence of myxomycetes in different regions of the world. For macroecological purposes, all regions represented by the datasets analyzed herein still remain understudied.

An annotated checklist slime molds (Myxomycetes = Myxogastrea) of western Kazakhstan

Authors: Zemlyanskaya, Inna & Novozhilov, Yuri & Schnittler, Martin
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 168-189.
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Key words: Amoebozoa, arid regions, biodiversity, steppe, desert, slime molds, species inventory, Myxogastria, Kazakhstan

Abstract: Winter-cold arid regions of western Kazakhstan were surveyed for myxomycetes for a period of 20 years. A total of 3228 records belonging to 111 species from 31 genera and 10 families are provided in an annotated checklist. The checklist contains data on the localities, habitats, substrates, methods of collection and voucher numbers of specimens deposited in the mycological herbarium (LE) of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Additionally the bibliographic references of the myxomycete species findings in the study area are given. Due to the very arid climate of the region, 2911 specimens (ca. 90%) were obtained from 1653 moist chamber cultures prepared with samples taken from bark of living plants, litter and the weathered dung of herbivorous animals. Only 317 specimens of myxomycetes were collected directly in the field, mostly in woody artificial plantations. The lowest species diversity was observed in habitats with halophytic vegetation, where on average only 1–2 species were recorded per moist chamber culture. Only Perichaena depressa and P. liceoides were common under such conditions. The highest diversity of myxomycetes was observed in the intrazonal woody communities of the steppe zone, which are usually associated with river valleys and artificial woody plantations. In these habitats lignicolous species occurred: Amaurochaete atra, Arcyria obvelata, Cribraria cancellata, Lamproderma scintillans, Lycogala epidendrum, Metatrichia vesparia, Oligonema flavidum, Stemonitis axifera, S. fusca, S. herbatica, S.pallida, Symphytocarpus confluens, and Trichia contorta. However, the apparently most common species of myxomycetes in the studied area are associated with litter or bark: Badhamia foliicola, B. spinispora, Didymium anellus, D. difforme, D. trachysporum, Echinostelium colliculosum, Fuligo cinerea, Licea denudescens, L. nannengae, L. parasitica, Macbrideola oblonga, Pericaena depressa, P. corticalis, P. liceoides, P. vermicularis, Physarum cinereum, and Ph. pseudonotabile. Among substrate types, species diversity and richness decrease from wood over ground litter to bark, and dung of herbivorous animals. Shannon diversity and species richness reached maximum values in the intrazonal and artificial woody communities, whereas treeless sagebrush desert and dry steppe communities and, halophytic vegetation had the most depauperate yet most specific myxomycete assemblages. Assemblages associated with these vegetation types displayed a high level of similarity to those of myxomycete assemblages from other arid regions of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. In contrast, assemblages of the artificial woody plantations in the study region displayed a high level of similarity to those of boreal forest regions of Siberia for which data exist, but differed from the assemblages documented from treeless desert and steppe regions of Eurasia.

Myxomycetes of Coron Island and additions to the Myxomycetes of Palawan group of islands in the Philippines

Authors: Macabago, Sittie Aisha B. & dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E. & Stephenson, Steven L.
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 157–167.
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Key words: karst forest, slime molds, Huxley’s line, biodiversity, insular, limestone forest

Abstract: The main objective of the research reported herein is to present an annotated checklist generated from the first survey of myxomycetes in the limestone forests of Coron Island in the province of Palawan, Philippines. A total of 25 morphotaxa were identified from specimens isolated in the laboratory from samples of ground leaf litter, twigs, and vines (lianas) collected from five sites along the coasts and inland forests of Coron Island. Among the identified taxa one (Badhamia macrocarpa) was a new record for the country, while another was temporarily assigned to the genus Perichaena (Trichiida: Trichiidae) until the proper classification of the specimen could be determined. In addition, the present study brings the updated total number of records of myxomycetes for the Palawan group of islands to 56 morphospecies.

New myxomycete records from the Canary Islands

Authors: López-Villalba, Ángela & Moreno, Gabriel
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 58 (2020), Issue 2, pages 145–156.
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Key words: Canary Islands, Myxomycetes, new records, SEM

Abstract: The volcanic Canary Islands constitute a biodiversity hotspot. Although our knowledge of the native flora and fauna species is extensive, the myxobiota of these islands is not so well-known. For this reason, we provide herein eight new records for the checklist of Canarian myxomycetes with accurate descriptions and macro- and microphotographs. The specimens were collected in Tenerife during the months of November and December 1987. All of them are new to the Canary Islands.