The occurrence and importance of Lophodermella sulcigena and Hendersonia acicola on Scots pine in Finland

Authors: Jalkanen, Risto
Journal: Karstenia, Volume 25 (1985), Issue 2, pages 53-61.
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Abstract:  Specimens of Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) v. Hahn. have been collected in Finland since 1893, and known epidemics have occurred in the years 1921-1924, 1946-1953, and from 1976 to today. The disease is now much more harmful than earlier. The northern line of the main distribution of Lophodermella needle cast has moved from the latitudes 61°-62° in the 1950’s to the Artie Circle in the 1980’s. The most severe damage during the last epidemic was in 10-20-year-old even-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations, occurring on the best forest sites but especially in abandoned fields. There were only a few scattered infected trees in plantations on poor pine heaths. The average height of the infected stands was 2-5 m. The epidemic started first in southern Finland and spread to northern Finland in a few years. A reason for the susceptibility to L. sulcigena is the planting of pine in the best soils and fields. Hendersonia acicola Tub. occurred in Lophodermella needles a few years after the first infection, and seemed to finish the epidemic of Lophodermella needle cast. Two symptom types of Lophodermella needle cast are described according to the absence or presence of H. acicola in the needles infected primarily by L. sulcigena.